, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 217-228,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 13 Feb 2007

Stability in Bullying and Victimization and its Association with Social Adjustment in Childhood and Adolescence


This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations between stability in bullying and victimization, and social adjustment in childhood and adolescence. Participants were 189 girls and 328 boys who were studied in primary school and in secondary school. The mean age of the participants was 11.1 years in primary school and 14.1 years in secondary school. The measures consisted of peer reported social and personal characteristics. Children who bullied in childhood and adolescence were less liked and more disliked in childhood, and more aggressive and disruptive both in childhood and adolescence, than children who bullied only in childhood or adolescence. Children who bullied or who were victimized only in childhood did not differ largely in adolescence from the children that were never bullies or victims. Children who were victimized in adolescence closely resembled those who were victimized in childhood and adolescence in terms of being liked or disliked, being nominated as a friend, and shyness. The study stresses the need to distinguish between stable and transient bullies and victims.

Ron H. J. Scholte: Area of interest: bullying and victimization, social relationships in adolescence, adolescent development and adjustment.
Rutger C. M. E. Engels: Area of interest: adolescent adjustment, substance use.
Geertjan Overbeek: Area of interest: adolescent attachment, social and romantic relationships.
Raymond A. T. de Kemp: Area of interest: social relationships in adolescence, adolescent development and adjustment.
Gerbert J. T. Haselager: Area of interest: social relationships in childhood and adolescence.