Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 219–229

Understanding the Covariation Among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

  • Danielle M. Dick
  • Richard J. Viken
  • Jaakko Kaprio
  • Lea Pulkkinen
  • Richard J. Rose
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10802-005-1829-8

Cite this article as:
Dick, D.M., Viken, R.J., Kaprio, J. et al. J Abnorm Child Psychol (2005) 33: 219. doi:10.1007/s10802-005-1829-8

Abstract

Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from > 600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized interviews at age 14. Behavior genetic methods were used to examine how genetic/environmental factors contribute to each disorder’s symptoms and to their covariation. We found significant genetic effects on each disorder with only modest evidence of shared environmental influences. Our data suggest the comorbidity among CD, ADHD, and ODD is primarily explained by shared genetic influences; however, each disorder was also under unique genetic influence, supporting the distinction of each disorder.

Keywords

attention deficit hyperactivity disorderconduct disorderoppositional defiant disordergeneticsexternalizing disorders

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle M. Dick
    • 1
  • Richard J. Viken
    • 2
  • Jaakko Kaprio
    • 3
  • Lea Pulkkinen
    • 4
  • Richard J. Rose
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryWashington University in St. LouisSt. Louis
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyIndiana UniversityBloomington
  3. 3.University of Helsinki & National Public Health InstituteHelsinki
  4. 4.University of JyväaskyläJyväskylä
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyIndiana UniversityBloomington