, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 329-336
Date: 08 Nov 2012

Returns to information security investment: Endogenizing the expected loss

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


This paper endogenizes the value of an information set which has to be produced and protected. The profit is inverse U shaped in security investment and production effort. The breach probability is commonly assumed to decrease convexly in security investment, which means that modest security investment is sufficient to deter most perpetrators. We allow the breach probability to be not only convex, but concave, which means that substantial security investment is needed to deter most perpetrators. Convexity versus concavity depends on the security environment, perpetrators, technology, and law enforcement. A firm strikes a balance between producing and protecting an information set dependent on seven model parameters for production, protection, convexity, concavity, vulnerability, and resource strength.