International Ophthalmology

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 73-82

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Prevention of age-related macular degeneration

  • Ian Yat Hin WongAffiliated withEye Institute, University of Hong Kong Email author 
  • , Simon Chi Yan KooAffiliated withTung Wah Eastern Hospital
  • , Clement Wai Nang ChanAffiliated withTung Wah Eastern Hospital


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Although effective treatment modalities such as anti-VEGF treatment have been developed for neovascular AMD, there is still no effective treatment for geographical atrophy, and therefore the most cost-effective management of AMD is to start with prevention. This review looks at current evidence on preventive measures targeted at AMD. Modalities reviewed include (1) nutritional supplements such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula, lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acid, and berry extracts, (2) lifestyle modifications, including smoking and body-mass-index, and (3) filtering sunlight, i.e. sunglasses and blue-blocking intraocular lenses. In summary, the only proven effective preventive measures are stopping smoking and the AREDS formula.


AREDS Age-related macular degeneration AMD Vitamin E Beta-carotene Neovascular AMD Yellow IOL Sunlight filtration Prevention