Inflammopharmacology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 109–126

The role of inflammatory processes in Alzheimer’s disease

Authors

  • G. Joseph Broussard
    • College of Osteopathic MedicineTouro University California
  • Jennifer Mytar
    • College of Osteopathic MedicineTouro University California
  • Rung-chi Li
    • College of Osteopathic MedicineTouro University California
    • College of Osteopathic MedicineTouro University California
Inflammation in acute and chronic neurological and psychiatric diseases

DOI: 10.1007/s10787-012-0130-z

Cite this article as:
Broussard, G.J., Mytar, J., Li, R. et al. Inflammopharmacol (2012) 20: 109. doi:10.1007/s10787-012-0130-z

Abstract

It has become increasingly clear that inflammatory processes play a significant role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neuroinflammation is characterized by the activation of astrocytes and microglia and the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Vascular inflammation, mediated largely by the products of endothelial activation, is accompanied by the production and the release of a host of inflammatory factors which contribute to vascular, immune, and neuronal dysfunction. The complex interaction of these processes is still only imperfectly understood, yet as the mechanisms continue to be elucidated, targets for intervention are revealed. Although many of the studies to date on therapeutic or preventative strategies for AD have been narrowly focused on single target therapies, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that the most successful treatment strategy will likely incorporate a sequential, multifactorial approach, addressing direct neuronal support, general cardiovascular health, and interruption of deleterious inflammatory pathways.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s diseaseInflammationNeuronNeuronalAstrocyteMicrogliaCardiovascularMicrovesselsVascularEndothelialCytokineChemokineImmuneNeurodegenerativeAmyloidβ-amyloidPathogenesisPathologyReactive oxygen speciesReactive nitrogen speciesInterleukinBlood–brain barrierCyclooxygenaseInflammatory mediatorsActivated endothelium

Abbreviations

ACh

Acetylcholine

AChE

Acetylcholinesterase

AChEI

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

AGE

Advanced glycation end product

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

AICD

Amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain

BACE-1

β-Site APP cleaving enzyme 1

β-Amyloid

BBB

Blood–brain barrier

CNS

Central nervous system

CD14

Cluster of differentiation 14

COX

Cyclooxygenase

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

ET-1

Endothelin-1

GLUT-1

Glucose tansporter-1

GLT-1

Glutamate transporter-1

GSK

Glycogen synthase kinase

HPC

Hippocampal progenitor cell

Hcy

Homocysteine

4-HNE

4-Hydroxynonenal

HIF-1α

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

IFNγ

Interferon-γ

IP-10

Interferon-γ induced protein-10

IL

Interleukin

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

KO

Knockout

LRP-1

LDL-receptor related protein-1

LTP

Long-term potentiation

LDL

Low density lipoprotein

MCSF

Macrophage colony stimulating factor

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MAP

Microtubule-associated protein

MCI

Mild cognitive impairment

MLK-3

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11

MCP-1

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1

NFT

Neurofibrillary tangle

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartic acid

NALP3

NACHT/LRR/PYD domains-containing protein 3

NGF

Nerve growth factor

nNOS

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthase

NSAID

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-κB

P-gp

P-glycoprotein

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ

PS-1

Presenilin-1

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

PKC

Protein kinase C

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RAGE

Receptor for advanced glycation end product

STAT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription

TSP

Thrombospondin

TIMP-1

Tissue inhibitor of MMP

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor-α

VCAM-1

Vascular cell-adhesion molecule

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

WT

Wild type

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2012