The Effect of Climatic Factors on the Activity Budgets of Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus)
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Climatic conditions can significantly affect the behavior of animals and constrain their activity or geographic distribution. Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) are one of the few primates that live outside the tropics. Here we analyze if and how the activity budgets of Barbary macaques are affected by climatic variables, i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and snow coverage. We collected scan sampling data on the activity budgets of four groups of macaques living in the Middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco from June 2008 to January 2011. This habitat is characterized by extreme seasonal changes, from cold and snowy winters to hot and dry summers. The activity budgets of the macaques differed across months but not across the time of day (with the exception of time spent feeding). The monkeys spent significantly more time feeding or foraging when there was no snow than when snow coverage was moderate or major. Daily rainfall was positively related to resting time and negatively to time spent moving or in social behavior. Air temperature was negatively related to time spent feeding or foraging. Finally, time spent on social behavior was significantly lower when relative humidity was high. These data indicate that environmental factors significantly affect the time budgets of endangered Barbary macaques, a species that has been little studied in the wild. Our findings support previous studies on temperate primates in showing that snow coverage can have negative consequences on the feeding ecology and survival of these species.
- Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227–267. CrossRef
- Barrett, L., Gaynor, D., Rendall, D., Mitchell, D., & Henzi, S. P. (2004). Habitual cave use and thermoregulation in chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus). Journal of Human Evolution, 46, 215–222. CrossRef
- Bernstein, I. S. (1972). Daily activity cycles and weather influences on a pigtail monkey group. Folia Primatologica, 18, 390–415. CrossRef
- Bettridge, C., Lehmann, J., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2010). Trade-offs between time, predation risk and life history, and their implications for biogeography: a systems modelling approach with a primate case study. Ecological Modelling, 221, 777–790. CrossRef
- Camperio Ciani, A., Palentini, L., Arahou, M., Martinoli, L., Capiluppi, C., & Mouna, M. (2005). Population decline of Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas of Morocco. Biological Conservation, 121, 635–641. CrossRef
- Campos, F. A., & Fedigan, L. M. (2009). Behavioural adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 138, 101–111. CrossRef
- Chapman, C. A., & Chapman, L. J. (1991). The foraging itinerary of spider monkeys: when to eat leaves? Folia Primatologica, 56, 162–166. CrossRef
- Clutton-Brock, T. H., & Harvey, P. H. (1977). Primate ecology and social organisation. Journal of Zoology, 183, 1–39. CrossRef
- Deag, J. M. (1980). Interactions between males and unweaned Barbary macaques: testing the agonistic buffering hypothesis. Behaviour, 75, 54–81. CrossRef
- Deag, J. M. (1985). The diurnal patterns of behaviour of the wild Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus). Journal of Zoology, 206, 403–413. CrossRef
- Dunbar, R. I. M. (1992). Time: a hidden constraint on the behavioural ecology of baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 35–49. CrossRef
- Dunbar, R. I. M., Korstjens, A. H., & Lehmann, J. (2009). Time as an ecological constraint. Biological Reviews, 84, 413–429. CrossRef
- El Alami, A., van Lavieren, E., Rachida, A., & Chait, A. (2012). Differences in activity budgets and diet between semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of the endangered Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in the Central High Atlas Mountains, Morocco. American Journal of Primatology, 74, 210–216. CrossRef
- Fa, J. E. (1984). Habitat distribution and habitat preference in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). International Journal of Primatology, 5, 273–286. CrossRef
- Fa, J. E. (1986). Use of time and resources by provisioned troops of monkeys: Social behaviour, time and energy in the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus L.) at Gibraltar. Contributions to Primatology, 23, 1–377.
- Fleagle, J. G. (1999). Primate adaptation and evolution. San Diego: Academic Press.
- Fooden, J. (2007). Systematic review of the Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fieldiana Zoology, 113, 1–60. CrossRef
- Hanya, G., Ménard, N., Qarro, M., Ibn Tattou, M., Fuse, M., Vallet, et al. (2011). Dietary adaptations of temperate primates: comparisons of Japanese and Barbary macaques. Primates, 52, 187–198. CrossRef
- Hetem, R. S., Strauss, W. M., Fick, L. G., Maloney, S. K., Meyer, L. C. R., Shobrak, M., et al. (2012). Does size matter? Comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the smaller Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica) in the Saudi desert. Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, 182, 437–449. CrossRef
- Hill, R. A. (2006). Thermal constraints on activity scheduling and habitat choice in baboons. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129, 242–249. CrossRef
- Hill, R. A., Barrett, L., Gaynor, D., Weingrill, T., Dixon, P., Payne, H., et al. (2003). Day length, latitude and behavioural (in)flexibility in baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 53, 278–286.
- Hill, R. A., Barrett, L., Gaynor, D., Weingrill, T., Dixon, P., Payne, H., et al. (2004). Day length variation and seasonal analyses of behaviour. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 34, 39–44.
- Isbell, L. A., & Young, C. P. (1993). Social and ecological influences on activity budgets of vervet monkeys, and their implications for group living. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 32, 377–385. CrossRef
- IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. Retrieved from: www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 24 Nov 2012.
- Iwamoto, T., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1983). Thermoregulation, habitat quality, and the behavioural ecology of gelada baboons. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52, 357–366. CrossRef
- Korstjens, A. H., Lehmann, J., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2010). Resting time as an ecological constraint on primate biogeography. Animal Behaviour, 79, 361–374. CrossRef
- Li, Y., Liu, X., Liao, M., Yang, J., & Stanford, C. B. (2009). Characteristics of a group of Hubei golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis) before and after major snow storms. American Journal of Primatology, 71, 523–526. CrossRef
- Mehlman, P. T. (1989). Comparative density, demography, and ranging behavior of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in marginal and prime conifer habitats. International Journal of Primatology, 10, 269–292. CrossRef
- Ménard, N. (2002). Ecological plasticity of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Evolutionary Anthropology, 11, 95–100. CrossRef
- Ménard, N., & Qarro, M. (1999). Bark stripping and water availability: a comparative study between Moroccan and Algerian Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Revue d’Ecologie, 54, 123–132.
- Ménard, N., & Vallet, D. (1997). Behavioral responses of Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) to variations in environmental conditions in Algeria. American Journal of Primatology, 43, 285–304. CrossRef
- Nakayama, Y., Matsuoka, S., & Watanuki, Y. (1999). Feeding rates and energy deficits of juvenile and adult Japanese monkeys in a cool temperate area with snow coverage. Ecological Research, 14, 291–301. CrossRef
- Ostner, J. (2002). Social thermoregulation in redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus). Folia Primatologica, 73, 175–180. CrossRef
- Pinheiro, J. C., & Bates, D. M. (2000). Mixed effects models in S and S-PLUS. New York: Springer. CrossRef
- Robinson, J. G. (1984). Diurnal variation in foraging and diet in the wedge-capped capuchin Cebus olivaceus. Folia Primatologica, 43, 216–228. CrossRef
- Sato, H. (2012). Diurnal resting in brown lemurs in a dry deciduous forest, northwestern Madagascar: implications for seasonal thermoregulation. Primates, 53, 255–263. CrossRef
- StataCorp. (2011). Stata statistical software: Release 12. Texas: Stata Press.
- Stelzner, J. K. (1988). Thermal effects on movement patterns of yellow baboons. Primates, 29, 91–105. CrossRef
- Stephens, D. W., & Krebs, J. R. (1986). Foraging theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson Education.
- Taub, D. M. (1984). A brief historical account of the recent decline in geographic distribution of the Barbary macaque in North Africa. In J. E. Fa (Ed.), The Barbary macaque: A case study in conservation (pp. 71–78). New York: Plenum Press. CrossRef
- van Doorn, A. C., O’Riain, M. J., & Swedell, L. (2010). The effects of extreme seasonality of climate and day length on the activity budget and diet of semi-commensal chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) in the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. American Journal of Primatology, 72, 104–112.
- van Lavieren, E., & Wich, S. A. (2009). Decline of the Barbary macaques Macaca sylvanus in the cedar forest of the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Oryx, 44, 133–138. CrossRef
- Ventura, R., Majolo, B., Schino, G., & Hardie, S. (2005). Differential effects of ambient temperature and humidity on allogrooming, self-grooming, and scratching in wild Japanese macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 126, 453–457. CrossRef
- Waters, S. S., Aksissou, M., El Harrad, A., Hobbelink, M. E., & Fa, J. E. (2007). Holding on in the Djebela: Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in northern Morocco. Oryx, 41, 106–108. CrossRef
- Xiang, Z. F., Huo, S., Xiao, W., Quan, R. C., & Grueter, C. C. (2007). Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus bieti at Xiaochangdu, Tibet: adaptations to a marginal environment. American Journal of Primatology, 69, 1141–1158. CrossRef
- Zar, J. H. (1999). Biostatistical analysis. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
- The Effect of Climatic Factors on the Activity Budgets of Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus)
International Journal of Primatology
Volume 34, Issue 3 , pp 500-514
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK
- 2. Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa
- 3. Primate Social Evolution Group, Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University Göttingen, Göttingen, 37077, Germany
- 4. École Nationale Forestière d’Ingénieurs, BP 511, Tabriquet, 1100, Salé, Morocco