Taxonomic Implications of a Field Study of Morphotypes of Hanuman Langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in Peninsular India
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The Hanuman langur is one of the most widely distributed and morphologically variable non-human primates in South Asia. Even though it has been extensively studied, the taxonomic status of this species remains unresolved due to incongruence between various classification schemes. This incongruence, we believe, is largely due to the use of plastic morphological characters such as coat color in classification. Additionally these classification schemes were largely based on reanalysis of the same set of museum specimens. To bring greater resolution in Hanuman langur taxonomy we undertook a field survey to study variation in external morphological characters among Hanuman langurs. The primary objective of this study is to ascertain the number of morphologically recognizable units (morphotypes) of Hanuman langur in peninsular India and to compare our field observations with published classification schemes. We typed five color-independent characters for multiple adults from various populations in South India. We used the presence-absence matrix of these characters to derive the pair-wise distance between individuals and used this to construct a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. The resulting NJ tree retrieved six distinct clusters, which we assigned to different morphotypes. These morphotypes can be identified in the field by using a combination of five diagnostic characters. We determined the approximate distributions of these morphotypes by plotting the sampling locations of each morphotype on a map using GIS software. Our field observations are largely concordant with some of the earliest classification schemes, but are incongruent with recent classification schemes. Based on these results we recommend Hill (Ceylon Journal of Science, Colombo 21:277-305, 1939) and Pocock (Primates and carnivora (in part) (pp. 97–163). London: Taylor and Francis, 1939) classification schemes for future studies on Hanuman langurs.
- Baldwin, L. A., Kavanagh, M., & Teleki, G. (1975). Field research on langur and proboscis monkeys: An historical, geographical, and bibliographical listing. Primates, 16, 351–363. CrossRef
- Bishop, N. H. (1978). Langurs living at high altitudes. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 74, 518–520.
- Bradley, B. J., & Mundy, N. I. (2008). The primate palette: The evolution of primate coloration. Evolutionary Anthropology, 17, 97–111. CrossRef
- Brandon-Jones, D. (2004). A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (Primates: Colobinae) of South Asia. Zoos’ print journal, 19, 1552–1594.
- Choudhury, A. U. (2007). The eastern limit of distribution of the hanuman langur Semnopithecus entellus dufresene. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 104, 199–200.
- Daniels, R. J. R. (1992). The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and its role in conserving India’s biodiversity. Current Science, 64, 706–708.
- Daniels, R. J. R. (1996). The Nilgiri biosphere reserve: A review of conservation status with recommendations for a holistic approach to management (India). UNESCO South-South Cooperation Program.
- Dunn, C. P. (2003). Keeping taxonomy based in morphology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 270. CrossRef
- Easa, P. S., & Shaji, C. P. (1997). Freshwater fish diversity in Kerala part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Current Science, 73, 180–182.
- Ellerman, J. R., & Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of palaearctic and Indian mammals, 1758–1946 (2nd ed.). London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History).
- Groves, C. P. (2001). Primate taxonomy. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
- Hijmans, R. J., Guarino, L., Bussink, C., Mathur, P., Cruz, M., Barrentes, I., et al. (2004). DIVA-GIS. Vsn. 5.0. A geographic information system for the analysis of species distribution data (Manual available at: http://www.diva-gis.org).
- Hill, W. C. (1938). The mode of carrying the tail in leaf-monkeys. Ceylon Journal of Science (B), 21, 66–67.
- Hill, W. C. (1939). An annotated systematic list of the leaf-monkeys. Ceylon Journal of Science, Colombo, 21, 277–305.
- Hrdy, S. B. (1977). The langurs of Abu-female and male strategies of reproduction. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Karanth, P. K., Singh, L., Collura, R., & Stewart, C.-B. (2008). Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia (Primates: Colobinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46, 683–694. CrossRef
- Karanth, P. K., Singh, L., & Stewart, C.-B. (2010). Mitochondrial and nuclear markers suggest Hanuman langur (Primates: Colobinae) polyphyly: Implications for their species status. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54, 627–633. CrossRef
- Kumara, H. N., & Singh, M. (2004). Distribution and abundance of primates in rain forests of the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India and the conservation of Macaca silenus. International Journal of Primatology, 25(5), 1001–1018. CrossRef
- Kumara, H. N., Kumar, S., & Singh, M. (2010). Of how much concern are the ‘least concern’ species? Distribution and conservation status of bonnet macaques, rhesus macaques and Hanuman langurs in Karnataka, India. Primates, 51, 37–42. CrossRef
- Kurup, G. U. (1981). Report on the census surveys of rural and urban populations of non-human primates of South India. Calicut: Zoological Survey of India.
- Kurup, G. U. (1984). Census survey and population ecology of Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus (Dufresne 1797) in south India. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 50, 245–256.
- Martin, R. D. (2003). In: Field and laboratory methods in primatology: A practical guide (pp. xv– xxv). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- McCann, C. (1933). Observations on some of the Indian langurs. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 36, 618–628.
- Napier, J. R., & Napier, P. H. (1967). A handbook of living primates. London: Academic Press.
- Oates, J. F., Davies, A. G., & Delson, E. (1994). The diversity of living colobines. In A. G. Davies & J. F. Oates (Eds.), Colobine monkeys: Their ecology, behaviour and evolution (pp. 45–73). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Osterholz, M., Walter, L., & Roos, C. (2008). Phylogenetic position of the langur genera Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus among Asian colobines, and genus affiliations of their species groups. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8, 58. CrossRef
- Pennell, F. W. (1934). How field study can modify older taxonomic concepts. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 61, 85–88. CrossRef
- Pocock, R. I. (1928). The langurs or leaf monkeys of British India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 32(472–504), 660–672.
- Pocock, R. I. (1939). Primates and carnivora (in part) (pp. 97–163). London: Taylor and Francis.
- Roonwal, M. L. (1979). Field study of geographical, sub specific and clinal variations in tail carriage in the Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus (primates) in South Asia. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Jena, 202, 235–255.
- Roonwal, M. L. (1984). Tail form and carriage in Asian and other primates, and their behavioral and evolutionary significance. In M. L. Roonwal, S. M. Mohnot, & N. S. Rathore (Eds.), Current primate research (pp. 93–151). Jodhpur, India: Jodhpur University Press.
- Roonwal, M. L., & Mohnot, S. M. (1977). Primates of South Asia: Ecology, sociobiology, and behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Srinivasulu, C., & Nagulu, V. (2001). Status of primates in Andhra Pradesh. Envis Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas, 1(1), 109–112.
- Swofford, D. (2001). PAUP*– Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and other methods, Version 4. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
- Wheeler, Q. D. (2004). Taxonomic triage and the poverty of phylogeny. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 359, 571–583. CrossRef
- Woodbury, A. M., Ricker, W. E., Cottam, C., Taber, R. D., & Pendleton, R. C. (1956). Uses of marking animals in ecological studies. Ecology, 37, 665–685. CrossRef
- Zhang, Y. P., & Ryder, O. A. (1998). Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of Old World monkeys: With special reference on evolution of Asian colobines. Primates, 39, 39–49. CrossRef
- Taxonomic Implications of a Field Study of Morphotypes of Hanuman Langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in Peninsular India
International Journal of Primatology
Volume 32, Issue 4 , pp 830-848
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Classification schemes
- Morphological characters