ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ UNDERSTANDING OF THE MEAN AND MEDIAN
 Tim Jacobbe
 … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discount
Rent now* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Abstract
This study provides a snapshot of elementary school teachers’ understanding of the mean and median. The research is presented in light of recent work regarding preservice teachers’ understanding of the mean. Common misconceptions are identified which lead to potential implications for teacher preparation programs. One of the primary concerns regarding increasing the standards expected of students to learn statistics is teachers’ preparation to address those standards. Exploring issues with teachers’ understanding of two of the most prominent concepts in the enacted curriculum provides a glimpse into the need to adequately prepare teachers to teach statistics.
 Batanero, C., Cobo, B., & Diaz, C. (2003). Assessing secondary school students’ understanding of averages. Proceedings of CERME 3, Bellaria, Italia. Online: www.dm.unipi.it/~didattica/CERME3/.
 Batanero, C., Godino, J. & Navas, F. (1997). Concepciones de maestros de primaria en formción sobre promedios (Primary school teachers’ conceptions on averages). In H. Salmerón (Ed.), Actas de las VII Jornadas LOGSE: Evaluación Educativa (pp. 310–340). Granada, Spain: University of Granada.
 Biggs, J. B. & Collis, K. F. (1982). Evaluating the quality of learning: The SOLO taxonomy. New York: Academic Press.
 Cai, J., & Gorowara, C. C. (2002) Teachers’ conceptions and constructions of pedagogical representations in teaching arithmetic average. In B. Phillips (Ed.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Teaching Statistics. Cape Town, South Africa: International Statistical Institute and International Association for Statistical Education. www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/∼iase/publications.
 Cai, J. & Moyer, J. (1995). Beyond the computational algorithm: Students’ understanding of the arithmetic average concept. In L. Meira (Ed.), Proceedings of the 19th Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference (Vol. 3, pp. 144–151). Recife, Brazil: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.
 Callingham, R. (1997). Teachers’ multimodal functioning in relation to the concept of average. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 9, 205–224. CrossRef
 Cobb, P. & Bauersfeld, H. (Eds.). (1995). The emergence of mathematical meaning—interaction in classroom cultures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 Franklin, C., Kader, G., Mewborn, D., Moreno, J., Peck, R., Perry, M. & Scheaffer, R. (2007). Guidelines for assessment and instruction in statistics education (GAISE) report. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association.
 Friel, S. N. & Bright, G. W. (1998). TeachSTAT: A model for professional development and data analysis for teachers K6. In S. Lajoie (Ed.), Reflections on statistics: Learning, teaching, and assessment in grades K–12 (pp. 89–117). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Gal, I. (2004). Statistical literacy: Meanings, components, responsibilities. In D. BenZvi & J. Garfield (Eds.), The challenges of developing statistical literacy, reasoning, and thinking (pp. 47–78). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
 Garcia, C., & Garret, A. (2006). On average and openend questions. In A. Rossman & B. Chance (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Teaching Statistics. Salvador (Bahia), Brazil: International Association for Statistical Education. www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/∼iase/publications.
 Gfeller, M. K., Niess, M. L. & Lederman, N. G. (1999). Preservice teachers’ use of multiple representations in solving arithmetic mean problems. School Science and Mathematics, 99, 250–257. CrossRef
 Groth, R. E. & Bergner, J. A. (2006). Preservice elementary teachers’ conceptual and procedural knowledge of mean, median, and mode. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8, 37–63. CrossRef
 Hiebert, J. & Lefevre, P. (1986). Conceptual and procedural knowledge in mathematics: An introductory analysis. In J. Hiebert & P. Lefevre (Eds.), Conceptual and procedural knowledge: The case of mathematics (pp. 1–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 Jacobbe, T. (2007). Elementary school teachers’ understanding of essential topics in statistics and the influence of assessment instruments and a reform curriculum upon their understanding. Online: www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/~iase/publications.
 Leavy, A. & O’Loughlin, N. (2006). Preservice teachers understanding of the mean: Moving beyond the arithmetic average. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 53–90. CrossRef
 McGatha, M., Cobb, P., & McClain, K. (1998). An analysis of students’ statistical understandings. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.
 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.
 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.
 Russell, S. J. & Mokros, J. R. (1991). What’s typical? Children’s ideas about average. In D. VereJones (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Teaching Statistics (pp. 307–313). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute.
 Scheaffer, R. (1986). The quantitative literacy project. Teaching Statistics, 8(2), 34–38.
 Shaughnessy, J. M. (1992). Research in probability and statistics: reflections and directions. In D. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 465–493). New York: Macmillan.
 Shaughnessy, J. M. (2007). Research on statistics learning and reasoning. In F. K. Lester (Ed.), Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 957–1009). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
 TeachSTAT (1996a). TeachSTAT: Teaching statistics grades 1–6: A key for better mathematics. The University of North Carolina Mathematics and Science Education Network. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour.
 TeachSTAT (1996b). TeachSTAT for statistics educators. The University of North Carolina Mathematics and Science Education Network. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour.
 Watson, J. M., Callingham, R. A., & Kelly, B. A. (2007). Students’ appreciation of expectation and variation as a foundation for statistical understanding. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 9, 83–130.
 Watson, J. M. & Moritz, J. B. (1999). The developments of concepts of average. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 21, 15–39.
 Watson, J. M. & Moritz, J. B. (2000). The longitudinal development of understanding of average. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2, 11–50. CrossRef
 Zawojewski, J. S. & Heckman, D. J. (1997). What do students know about data analysis, statistics, and probability? In P. A. Kenney & E. A. Silver (Eds.), Results from the sixth mathematics assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (pp. 195–223). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
 Zawojewski, J.S., & Shaughnessy, J.M. (1999). Data and chance. In P.A. Kenney & E.A. Silver (Eds.), Results from the seventh mathematics assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (pp. 235–268). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
 Title
 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ UNDERSTANDING OF THE MEAN AND MEDIAN
 Journal

International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education
Volume 10, Issue 5 , pp 11431161
 Cover Date
 20121001
 DOI
 10.1007/s1076301193210
 Print ISSN
 15710068
 Online ISSN
 15731774
 Publisher
 Springer Netherlands
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 content knowledge
 mean
 median
 statistics education
 teachers’ preparation
 Authors

 Tim Jacobbe ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. School of Teaching and Learning, University of Florida, PO Box 117048, 2403 Norman Hall, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA