Colonizing China’s Northern Frontier: Yan and Her Neighbors During the Early Western Zhou Period
The establishment of the Yan state by the Zhou court during late eleventh century BCE had fulfilled the attempt by the dynastic power to colonize and control the local population of northern Hebei. The Yan and the two local groups, one active in the Yan mountainous region and the other in the Jing, Jin, and Tang area, developed a cooperative relationship during the early Western Zhou period. The cooperation between Yan and local elites was mutually beneficial. While local elite culture was heavily influenced by that of the Shang and Zhou, local traditions continued to be present.