Inflammation

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 639–648

Inflammatory Mediators as Biomarkers in Brain Disorders

  • Domenico Nuzzo
  • Pasquale Picone
  • Luca Caruana
  • Sonya Vasto
  • Annalisa Barera
  • Calogero Caruso
  • Marta Di Carlo
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10753-013-9780-2

Cite this article as:
Nuzzo, D., Picone, P., Caruana, L. et al. Inflammation (2014) 37: 639. doi:10.1007/s10753-013-9780-2

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive death of the neurons. The definite diagnosis of a neurodegenerative disorder is disadvantaged by the difficulty in obtaining biopsies and thereby to validate the clinical diagnosis with pathological results. Biomarkers are valuable indicators for detecting different phases of a disease such as prevention, early onset, treatment, progression, and monitoring the effect of pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Inflammation occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, and identification and validation of molecules involved in this process could be a strategy for finding new biomarkers. The ideal inflammatory biomarker needs to be easily measurable, must be reproducible, not subject to wide variation in the population, and unaffected by external factors. Our review summarizes the most important inflammation biomarkers currently available, whose specificity could be utilized for identifying and monitoring distinctive phases of different neurodegenerative diseases.

KEY WORDS

Alzheimer diseaseParkinson diseaseamyotrophic lateral sclerosisHuntington diseaseinflammatory biomarkers

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Domenico Nuzzo
    • 1
  • Pasquale Picone
    • 1
  • Luca Caruana
    • 1
  • Sonya Vasto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Annalisa Barera
    • 2
  • Calogero Caruso
    • 3
  • Marta Di Carlo
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedicine ed Molecular Immunology, National Research Council of ItalyPalermoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biologic, Technology, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical ScienceUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Biopathology and Medical and Forensic BiotechnologyUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly
  4. 4.Istituto di Biomedicina ed Immunologia Molecolare (IBIM) Alberto MonroyPalermoItaly