Differential responses of Myriophyllum alterniflorum DC (Haloragaceae) organs to copper: physiological and developmental approaches
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- Delmail, D., Labrousse, P., Hourdin, P. et al. Hydrobiologia (2011) 664: 95. doi:10.1007/s10750-010-0589-9
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Copper is an essential element for the function of metabolic pathways in many living organisms like photosynthesis in plants. But, for the last decades, anthropogenic sources and release of Cu lead to environmental pollution particularly in aquatic ecosystems. The aquatic plant, Myriophyllum alterniflorum, known as a bioindicator of metal pollution, could be used as biomonitor. The aim of this study is to evaluate biomarkers responses of watermilfoil during Cu pollution at high environmental levels (100 μg l−1 CuSO4) in controlled conditions. Morphological and anatomical features like a new double endodermis (DE) layer were evidenced in response to Cu treatment. Moreover, physiological parameters like pigments contents, osmotic potential and proline content present a differential response to Cu stress in young and old leaves of watermilfoil. Finally, despite a rapid and strong phytoaccumulation of Cu, only young leaves are slightly affected in their cell membrane integrity as indicated by MDA content. In comparison with the Cu effect on other aquatic macrophytes, M. alterniflorum develops particular protection mechanisms like the ROS scavenging using proline rather than carotenoids, the reduction of water loss with the DE and the heavy metal elimination through senescence to protect preferentially the photosynthetic components of the young leaves and the main-stem elongation. Due to its Cu sensitivity, M. alterniflorum appears as important in the field of environmental studies using plant biomarkers.