Abell, R. A., D. M. Olson, E. Dinerstein, P. T. Hurley, J. T. Diggs, W. Eichbaum, S. Walters, W. Wettengel, T. Allnut, C. J. Loucks & P. Hedao, 1999. Freshwater Ecoregions of North America. A Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
Angermeier, P. L. & R. A. Smogor, 1995. Estimating the number of species and relative abundances of stream-fish communities: effects of sampling effort and discontinuous spatial distributions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 52: 936–949.Google Scholar
Arthington, A. H. & C. J. Marshall, 1996. Threatened fishes of the world: Nannoperca oxleyana
Whitley, 1940 (Nannopercidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 46: 150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baattrup-Pedersen, A., K. Szoszkiewicz, R. Nijboer, M. O’Hare & T. Ferreira, 2006. Macrophyte communities in unimpacted European streams: variability in assemblage patterns, abundance and diversity. Hydrobiologia 566: 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belbin, L., 1994. Pattern Analysis Package. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Rangelands Research, Canberra.Google Scholar
Biodiversity Advisory Committee, 1992. A National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia’s Biological Diversity. Draft for public comment. Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment and Territories, Canberra.Google Scholar
Breiman, L., J. H. Friedman, R. A. Olshen & C. J. Stone, 1984. Classification and Regression Trees. Wadsworth, Belmont, California.Google Scholar
Brierley, G. J. & K. Fryirs, 2005. Geomorphology and River Management: Applications of the River Styles Framework. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
Chessman, B., 2006. Prediction of riverine fish assemblages through the concept of environmental filters. Marine and Freshwater Research 57: 601–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chessman, B., I. Growns, J. Currey & N. Plunkett-Cole, 1999. Predicting diatom communities at the genus level for the rapid biological assessment of rivers. Freshwater Biology 41: 317–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clarke, K. R & R. M. Warwick, 1994. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Natural Environment Research Council, UK, 144 pp.Google Scholar
Clarke R. T., J. F. Wright & M. T. Furse, 2003. RIVPACS models for predicting the expected macroinvertebrate fauna and assessing the ecological quality of rivers. Ecological Modelling 160: 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clifford, H. C. & W. C. Stephenson, 1975. An Introduction to Numerical Classification. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
Cooper, S. D., L. Barmuta, O. Sarnelle, K. Kratz & S. Diehl, 1997. Quantifying spatial heterogeneity in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16: 174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, S. D., S. Diehl, K. Kratz & O. Sarnelle, 1998. Implications of scale for patterns and processes in stream ecology. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, N., R. H. Norris & M. C. Thoms, 2000. Prediction and assessment of local stream habitat features using large-scale catchment characteristics. Freshwater Biology 45: 343–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davy-Bowker, J., R. T. Clarke, R. K. Johnson, J. Kokes, J. F. Murphy & S. Zahrádková, 2006. A comparison of the European Water Framework Directive physical typology and RIVPACS-type models as alternative methods of establishing reference conditions for benthic macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 566: 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Department of Environment, Conservation, 2006. New South Wales State of the Environment 2006. Department of Environment and Conservation, Sydney NSW.
(last accessed on 21 November 2007).Google Scholar
Department of Environment and Water Resources, 2007. Australia’s Biogeographical Regions.
(last accessed on 21 November 2007).
Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2005. Index of Stream Condition: The Second Benchmark of Victorian River Condition. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne August 2005.
(last accessed on 21 November 2007).
Doledec, S. & B. Statzner, 1994. Theoretical habitat templates, species traits, and species richness: 548 plant and animal species in the Upper Rhone River and its floodplain. Freshwater Biology 31: 523–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dollar, E. S. J., C. S. James, K. H. Rogers & M. C. Thoms, 2007. A framework for interdisciplinary understanding of rivers as ecosystems. Geomorphology 89: 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downes, B. J., P. S. Lake & E. S. G. Schreiber, 1993. Spatial variation in the distribution of stream invertebrates; implications of patchiness for models of community organisation. Freshwater Biology 30: 119–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eekhout, S., J. M. King, A. Wackernagel, 1997. Classification of South African Rivers. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria.Google Scholar
European Commission, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC. Establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. PE-CONS 3639/1/100 Rev 1., European Commission, Luxemburg.
Fieseler, C. & C. Wolter, 2006. A fish based typology of small temperate rivers in the northeastern lowlands of Germany. Limnologica 36: 2–16.Google Scholar
Ferrier, S., 2002. Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: where to from here? Systematic Biology 51: 331–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrier, S., 2006. Spatial modelling of biodiversity at the community level. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 393–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzsimons, J. A. & H. A. Robertson, 2005. Freshwater Reserves in Australia: directions and challenges for the development of comprehensive, adequate and representative system of protected areas. Hydrobiologia 552: 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frissell, C. A., W. J. Liss, C. A. Warren & M. D. Hurley, 1986. A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification. Environmental Management 10: 119–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gauch, H. G. Jr., 1982. Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Gehrke, P. C., 1997. Species richness and composition of freshwater fish communities in New South Wales Rivers. In Harris, J. & P. C. Gehrke (eds), Fish and Rivers in Stress. The NSW Rivers Survey. NSW Fisheries Office of Conservation and the Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology, Sydney, 103–132.
Gerritsen, J. B., M. T. Barbour & K. King, 2000. Apples, oranges, and ecoregions: on determining pattern in aquatic assemblages. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 487–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, R. H, 1979. Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental Biologists, 1st edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
Harden, G. J., 1990. Flora of New South Wales. New South Wales University Press, Sydney.Google Scholar
Hart, B. T. & I. C. Campbell, 1994. Ecological River Classification Scheme for Australia. In Uys, M. C. (ed.), Classification of Rivers, and Environmental Health Indicators. Proceedings of a Joint South African/Australian Workshop. February 7–14, 1994. Cape Town, South Africa. Water Research Commission Report No. TT 63/94, 87–100.
Hawkins, C. P. & M. R. Vinson, 2000. Weak correspondence between landscape classifications and stream invertebrate assemblages: implications for bioassessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 501–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, C. P., R. H. Norris, J. Gerritsen, R. M. Hughes, S. K. Jackson, R. K. Johnson & R. J. Stevenson, 2000. Evaluation of the use of landscape classifications for the prediction of freshwater biota: synthesis and recommendations. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19(3): 541–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hering, D., O. Moog, L. Sandin & P. F. M. Verdonschot, 2004. Overview of the application of the AQEM assessment system. Hydrobiologia 510: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higgins, J. V., M. T. Bryer, M. L. Khoury & T. W. Fitzhugh, 2005. A freshwater classification approach for biodiversity conservation planning. Conservation Biology 19: 432–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hose, G. & E. Turak, 2006. River Health in the New South Wales Lower North Coast, Hunter and Central Coast Catchments. River Health Bioassessment Report No. 41. Department of the Environment and Heritage, and NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.
(last accessed 21 November 2007).
Hunter, M. L. Jr., 1991. Coping with Ignorance: The Coarse Filter Strategy for Maintaining Biodiversity. In Kohm, K. (ed.), Balancing on the Brink of Extinction: The Endangered Species Act and Lessons for the Future. Island Press, Washington, DC, 266–281.
Johnson, R. K., D. Hering, M. Furse & R. T. Clarke, 2006 Detection of ecological change using multiple organism groups: metrics and uncertainty. Hydrobiologia 566: 115–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jowett, I. G. & J. Richardson, 1995. Fish communities in New Zealand rivers and their relationship to environmental variables. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37: 347–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kauffman, L. & P. J. Rousseeuw, 1990. Finding Groups in Data. An Introduction to Cluster Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Sydney.Google Scholar
Kingsford, R.T., H. Dunn, D. Love, J. Nevill, J. Stein & J. Tait, 2005. Protecting Australia’s rivers, wetlands and estuaries of high conservation value: a blueprint. Report to Land and Water Australia, Canberra.
(last accessed on 21 November 2007).
Kruskal, J. B. & M. Wish, 1978. Multidimensional Scaling. Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, no 07-011. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.
Linke, S., H. R. Norris, D. P. Faith & D. Stockwell, 2005. ANNA: A new prediction method for comparative bioassessment methods. Freshwater Biology 50: 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchant, R., F. Wells & P. Newall, 2000. Assessment of an ecoregion approach for classifying macroinvertebrate assemblages from streams in Victoria, Australia. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 497–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchant, R., D. Ryan & L. Metzeling, 2006. Regional and local species diversity patterns for lotic invertebrates across multiple drainage basins in Victoria. Marine and Freshwater Research 57: 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Margules, C. R. & R. Pressey, 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minshall, G. W., K. W. Cummins, R. C. Petersen, C. E. Cushing, D. A. Bruns, J. R. Sedell & R. L. Vannote, 1985. Developments in stream ecosystem theory. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 42: 1045–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minshall, G. W., R. C. Petersen, K. W. Cummins, T. L. Bott, J. R. Sedell, C. E. Cushing & R. L. Vannote, 1983. Interbiome comparison of stream ecosystem dynamics. Ecological Monographs 53: 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulholland, P. J., 1997. Dissolved organic matter concentration and flux in streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16: 131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray-Darling Basin Commission, 2004. Sustainable Rivers Audit Pilot Audit. Macroinvertebrate Theme. Technical Report 07/04. Canberra.
Mykrae, H., J. Heino & T. Muotka, 2004. Variability of lotic macroinvertebrate assemblages and stream habitat characteristics across hierarchical landscape classifications. Environmental Management 34: 341–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nijboer, R. C., R. K. Johnson, P. F. M. Verdonschot, M. Sommerhauser & A. Buffagni, 2004. Establishing reference condition in European streams. Hydrobiologia 516: 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Noda, T., 2004. Spatial hierarchical approach in community ecology: a way beyond high context dependency and low predictability in local phenomena. Population Ecology 46: 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Keefe, J. H. & M. Uys, 2000. The role of classification in the conservation of rivers. In Boon, P. J., B. R. Davies & G. E. Petts (eds), Global Perspectives on River Conservation. Science, Policy, Practice. John Wiley, 445–458.
O’Neill, R. V., D. L. DeAngelis, J. B. Waide & T. F. H. Allen, 1986. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton University press, New Jersey.Google Scholar
NSW Department of Water Resources, 1994. Pinneena. New South Wales River Basin Maps. NSW Department of Water Resources, Sydney.Google Scholar
Paavola, R., T. Muotka, R. Virtanen, J. Heino & P. Kreivi, 2003. Are biological classifications of headwater streams concordant across multiple taxonomic groups? Freshwater Biology 48: 1912–1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R Development Core Team, 2004. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. ISBN 3-900051-00-3, URL
. In R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
Sandin, L. & R. K. Johnson, 2000. Ecoregions and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of Swedish streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 462–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandin, L. & P. F. M. Verdonschot, 2006. Stream and river typologies: major results and conclusions from the STAR project. Hydrobiologia 566: 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SAS Institute, 1998. SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Release 6.03 Edition, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Simpson, J. C. & R. H. Norris, 2000. Biological assessment of river quality: development of AUSRIVAS models and outputs. In Wright, J. F., D. W. Sutcliffe & M. T. Furse (eds), Assessing the Biological Quality of Freshwaters: RIVPACS and Other Techniques. Freshwater Biological Association, Cumbria, UK.
Snelder, T. H. & Biggs B. J. F., 2002. Multiscale river environment classification for water resources management. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38: 1225–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ter Braak, C. J. F. & P. Šmilauer, 2002. Canoco Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User’s Guide. Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5). Biometris, Wgeningen and Ceské Budejovice.
Thackway, R. & I. D. Cresswell, 1995. An Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation of Australia: A Framework for Establishing the National System of Reserves, Version 4.0. Australian Nature Conservation.
Therneau, T. M. & E. J. Atkinson, 1997. An Introduction to Recursive Partitioning Using RPART Routines. Technical Report 61. Mayo Clinic, Section of Statistics.
Thieme, M., R. Abell, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, 2005. Freshwater Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar. A Conservation Assessment. Island Press. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
Thieme, M., B. Lehner, R. A. Abell, S. K. Hamilton, J. Kellndorfer, G. Powell & J. C. Riveros, 2007. Freshwater conservation planning in data poor areas: an example from a remote Amazonian basin (Madre de Dios River, Peru and Bolivia). Biological Conservation 135: 500–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thoms, M. C., S. M. Hill, M. J. Spry, X. J. Chen, T. J. Mount, F. Sheldon, 2004. The geomorphology of the Darling River. In Breckwodt, R., R Boden & J. Andrew (eds), The Darling. Murray-Darling Basin Commission, Canberra, 68–103.Google Scholar
Turak, E., 2007. An Ecological Typology of the Rivers of New South Wales, Australia. PhD thesis. University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Turak, E., L. K. Flack, R. H. Norris, J. Simpson & N. Waddell, 1999. Assessment of river condition at a large spatial scale using predictive models. Freshwater Biology 41: 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turak, E., G. Hose & N. Waddell, 2002. Australia-wide Assessment of River Health: New South Wales Bioassessment Report (NSW Final Report), Monitoring River Health Initiative Technical Report no 2a. Commonwealth of Australia and NSW Environment Protection Authority, Canberra and Sydney
(last accessed on 21 November 2007).
Turak, E. & N. Waddell, 2002. Development of AusRivAS Models for NSW (NSW Final Report). Monitoring River Heath Initiative Technical Report no. 10. Commonwealth of Australia and NSW Environment Protection Authority, Canberra and Sydney. Online document
(last accessed on 21 November 2007).
Turak, E., N. Waddell & G. Johnstone, 2004. New South Wales Australian River Assessment System (AUSRIVAS) Sampling and Processing Manual. Commonwealth of Australia and NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra and Sydney. Commonwealth of Australia and NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra and Sydney.
, (last accessed on 21 November 2007).
Unmack, P. J., 2001. Biogeography of Australian Freshwater Fishes. Journal of Biogeography 28(9): 1052–1089.
van Sickle, J. & R. M. Hughes, 2000. Classification strengths of ecoregions, catchments and geographic clusters for aquatic vertebrates in Oregon. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 370–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Venables, W. N. & B. D. Ripley, 2002. Modern Applied Statistics with S-Plus, 4th edition. Springer-Verlag.
Verdonschot, P. F. M. & R. C. Nijboer, 2004. Testing the European stream typology of the water framework directive for macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 516: 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiens, J. A., 1989. Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology. 3: 385–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiens, J. A., 2000. Ecological heterogeneity: an ontogeny of concepts and approaches. In Hutchins, M. J., E. A. John & A. J. A. Stewart (eds), The Ecological Consequences of Environmental Heterogeneity. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 9–31.Google Scholar
Waite, I. R., A. T. Herlihy, D. P. Larsen & D. J. Klemm, 2000. Comparing strengths of geographic and non-geographic classifications of stream nethic macroinvertebrates in the Mid-Atlantic highlands, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19(3): 429–441.
Warry, D. N. & M. Hanau, 1993. The use of terrestrial ecoregions as a regional-scale screen for selecting representative reference sites for water quality monitoring. Environmental Management 17(2): 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wells, F., L. Metzeling & P. Newall, 2002. Macroinvertebrate regionalisation for use in the management of aquatic ecosystems in Victoria, Australia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 74: 271–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, J. F,, 2000. An introduction to RIVPACS. In Wright, J. F., D. W. Sutcliffe & M. T. Furse (eds), Assessing the Biological Quality of Freshwaters: RIVPACS and Other Techniques. Freshwater Biological Association, Cumbria, UK.Google Scholar
Wright, J. F., D. Moss, P. D. Armitage & M. T. Furse, 1984. A preliminary classification of running-water sites in Great Britain based on macroinvertebrate species and the prediction of community type using environmental data. Freshwater Biology 14: 221–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar