Riverine and early ocean migration and mortality patterns of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Cheakamus River, British Columbia
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
High mortality (65–73%) occurred in the first month of the smolt migration in a population of wild steelhead trout. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor the downstream, estuarine, and early ocean migration of tagged smolts and estimate their mortality rates. After entering the Strait of Georgia most smolts migrated north through Johnstone and Queen Charlotte Straits rather than south through the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Of 51 smolts tagged in 2004 (49 in 2005), 36–38 (41–42) survived to leave freshwater and 14–19 (13–14) survived to leave the Strait of Georgia system. Mortality rates in separate segments of the migration were correlated with segment distances. An additional component of mobile sampling showed that few smolts died during the migration through Howe Sound. Migration rates averaged 0.7–0.9 body lengths per second (BL s−1) downstream and 1.0–2.6 BL s−1 in ocean waters. Aggregated detection probabilities of 92–96% on lines of ocean receivers suggest that migration routes of small fishes can be quantified over several hundred kilometres, and survival rates can be estimated for even a modest number of tagged fish. Quantifying mortality patterns during the smolt migration could help to determine causes of low marine survival rates observed in recent years.
- Adams, N. S., D. W. Rondorf, S. D. Evans & J. E. Kelly, 1998a. Effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters on growth and feeding behavior of juvenile chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127: 128–136. CrossRef
- Adams, N. S., D. W. Rondorf, S. D. Evans, J. E. Kelly & R. W. Perry, 1998b. Effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters on swimming performance and predator avoidance of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 781–787. CrossRef
- Beauchamp, D. A. & J. J. Van Tassell, 2001. Modeling seasonal trophic interactions of adfluvial bull trout in Lake Billy Chinook, Oregon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130: 204–216. CrossRef
- Collis, K., D. D. Roby, D. P. Craig, B. A. Ryan & R. D. Ledgerwood. 2001. Colonial waterbird predation on juvenile salmonids tagged with passive integrated transponders in the Columbia River estuary: Vulnerability of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130: 385–396. CrossRef
- Huato, L. 2001. A modeling investigation of migratory behavior in fishes: A case study with sockeye salmon. Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
- Lacroix, G. L., D. Knox & P. McCurdy, 2004. Effects of implanted dummy acoustic transmitters on juvenile Atlantic salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 211–220. CrossRef
- Levy, D. A. & C. D. Levings, 1978. A description of the fish community of the Squamish River estuary, British Columbia: Relative abundance, seasonal changes, and feeding habits of salmonids. Fisheries and Marine Service Manuscript Report, No. 1475.
- Mace, P. M. 1983. Bird predation on juvenile salmonids in the Big Qualicum Estuary, Vancouver Island. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, No. 1176.
- Moore, A., I. C. Russell & E. C. E. Potter, 1990. The effects of intraperitoneally implanted dummy acoustic transmitters on the behaviour and physiology of juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Biology 37: 713–721. CrossRef
- Pearcy, W. G., 1992. Ocean ecology of North Pacific salmonids. University of Washington Press, Seattle, Wash.
- Pearcy, W. G., R. D. Brodeur & J. P. Fisher, 1990. Distribution and biology of juvenile cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki and steelhead O. mykiss in coastal waters off Oregon and Washington. Fisheries Bulletin 88: 697–711.
- Smith, B. D. & B. R. Ward, 2000. Trends in wild adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) abundance for coastal regions of British Columbia support the variable marine survival hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 271–284. CrossRef
- Thompson, R. E. 1981. The Oceanography of the British Columbia Coast. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Bulletin 56, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, 291 pp.
- Walters, C. J. & F. Juanes, 1993. Recruitment limitation as a consequence of natural selection for use of restricted feeding habitats and predation risk taking by juvenile fishes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 2058–2070.
- Ward, B. R, 2000. Declivity in steelhead recruitment at the Keogh River over the past decade. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 298–306. CrossRef
- Ward, B. R., P. A. Slaney, A. R. Facchin & R. W. Land, 1989. Size-biased survival in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Back-calculated lengths from adults’ scales compared to migrating smolts at the Keogh River, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46: 1853–1858. CrossRef
- Welch, D. W., B. R. Ward, B. D. Smith & J. P. Eveson, 2000. Temporal and spatial responses of British Columbia steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations to ocean climate shifts. Fisheries Oceanography 9: 17–32. CrossRef
- Welch, D. W., B. R. Ward & S. Batten, 2004. Early ocean survival and marine movements of hatchery and wild steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) determined by an acoustic array: Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia. Deep-Sea Research II 51: 897–909. CrossRef
- Welch, D. W., S. D. Batten & B. R. Ward, 2007. Growth, survival, and tag retention of steelhead trout (O. mykiss) surgically implanted with dummy acoustic tags. Hydrobiologia 582: 289–299.
- Wood, C. C., 1987. Predation of juvenile Pacific salmon by the common merganser (Mergus merganser) on eastern Vancouver Island. 1: Predation during the seaward migration. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 941–949.
- Riverine and early ocean migration and mortality patterns of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Cheakamus River, British Columbia
Volume 582, Issue 1 , pp 55-65
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Marine survival
- Industry Sectors