Breen, P. A. & K. H. Mann, 1976. Destructive grazing of kelp by sea urchins in eastern Canada. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33: 1278–1283.
Breen, P. A., B. E. Adkins & D. C. Miller, 1978. Recovery rate in three exploited sea urchin populations from 1972 to 1977. Fisheries and Marine Services Manuscript Report 1446: 1–27.
Breen, P. A., D. C. Miller & B. E. Adkins, 1976. An examination of harvested sea urchin populations in the Tofino area. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Manuscript Report Series 1401: 1–23.
Carter, S. K., 1999. Ecosystem effects of simulated sea otter predation and commercial sea urchin harvest on nearshore benthic communities in northern Washington. M. S. Thesis. University of Washington, Seattle.
Carter, S. K. & G. R. VanBlaricom, 2002. Effects of experimental harvest on red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, in northern Washington. Fisheries Bulletin 100: 662–673.
Chapman, A. R. O., 1981. Stability of sea urchin dominated barren grounds following destructive grazing of kelp in St Margaret’s Bay, eastern Canada. Marine Biology 62: 307–311.CrossRef
Cowen, R. K., C. R. Agegian & M. S. Foster, 1982. The maintenance of community structure in a central California giant kelp forest. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 64: 189–201.CrossRef
Dayton, P. K., 1975. Experimental studies of algal canopy interactions in a sea otter-dominated kelp community at Amchitka Island, Alaska. Fishery Bulletin 73: 230–238.
Dayton, P. K., 1985a. Ecology of kelp communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 215–245.CrossRef
Dayton, P. K., 1985b. The structure and regulation of some South American kelp communities. Ecological Monographs 55: 447–468.CrossRef
Dayton, P. K., V. Currie, T. Gerrodette, B. D. Keller, R. Rosenthal & D. Ven Tresca, 1984. Patch dynamics and stability of some California kelp communities. Ecological Monographs 54: 253–289.CrossRef
Dean, T. A., S. C. Schroeter & J. D. Dixon, 1984. Effects of grazing by two species of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
and Lytechinus anamesus
) on recruitment and survival of two species of kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera
and Pterygophora californica
). Marine Biology 78: 301–313.CrossRef
Dean, T. A., J. L. Bodkin, S. C. Jewett, D. H. Monson & D. Jung, 2000. Changes in sea urchins and kelp following a reduction in sea otter density as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine Ecology Progress Series 199: 281–291.
Duggins, D. O., 1980. Kelp beds and sea otters: an experimental approach. Ecology 61: 447–453.CrossRef
Estes, J. A. & D. O. Duggins, 1995. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs 65: 75–100.CrossRef
Estes, J. A. & C. Harrold, 1988. Sea otters, sea urchins, and kelp beds: some questions of scale. In VanBlaricom, G. R. & J. A. Estes (eds), The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 116–150.
Estes, J. A. & J. F. Palmisano, 1974. Sea otters: their role in structuring nearshore communities. Science 185: 1058–1060.CrossRefPubMed
Estes, J. A. & G. R. VanBlaricom, 1985. Sea-otters and shellfisheries. In Beddington, J. R., R. J. H. Beverton & D. M. Lavigne (eds), Marine Mammals and Fisheries. George Allen and Unwin, London, UK, 187–235.
Estes, J. A., R. J. Jameson & E. B. Rhode, 1982. Activity and prey election in the sea otter: influence of population status on community structure. American Naturalist 120: 242–258.CrossRef
Estes, J. A., N. S. Smith & J. F. Palmisano, 1978. Sea otter predation and community organization in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Ecology 59: 822–833.CrossRef
Estes, J. A., M. T. Tinker, T. M. Williams & D. F. Doak, 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282: 473–476.PubMedCrossRef
Fanshawe, S., G. R. VanBlaricom & A. A. Shelly, 2003. Restored top carnivores as detriments to the performance of marine protected areas intended for fishery sustainability: a case study with red abalones and sea otters. Conservation Biology 17: 273–283.CrossRef
Foster, M. S., 1990. Organization of macroalgal assemblages in the Northeast Pacific: the assumption of homogeneity and the illusion of generality. Hydrobiologia 192: 21–33.CrossRef
Foster, M. S. & D. R. Schiel, 1988. Kelp communities and sea otters: keystone species or just another brick in the wall? In VanBlaricom, G. R. & J. A. Estes (eds), The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 92–115.
Foster, M. S. & G. R. VanBlaricom, 2001. Spatial variation in kelp forest communities along the Big Sur coast of central California, USA. Cryptogamie et Algologie 22: 173–186.CrossRef
Gerber, L. R. & G. R. VanBlaricom, 1999. Potential fishery conflicts involving sea otters (Enhydra lutris [L]) in Washington state waters. Final report, contract T30917202. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, DC.
Gerber, L. R., K. E. Buenau & G. R. VanBlaricom, 2004. Density dependence and risk of extinction in a small population of sea otters. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 2741–2757.CrossRef
Harrold, C. & D. C. Reed, 1985. Food availability, sea urchin grazing, and kelp forest community structure. Ecology 66: 1160–1169.CrossRef
Himmelman, J. H., A. Cardinal & E. Bourget, 1983. Community development following removal of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis
, from the rocky subtidal zone of the St Lawrence Estuary, eastern Canada. Oecologia 59: 27–39.CrossRef
Himmelman, J. H. & H. Nédélec, 1990. Urchin foraging and algal survival strategies in intensely grazed communities in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 1011–1026.CrossRef
Hoines, L., 1998. 1995 Fisheries statistical report. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia.
Jameson, R. J., 1998. Translocated sea otter populations off the Oregon and Washington coasts. In Mac, M. J., P. A. Opler, C. E. Puckett-Haecker & P. D. Doran (eds), Status and Trends of the Nation’s Biological Resources, Vol. 2. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC, 684–686.
Jameson, R. J., S. Jeffries & K. W. Kenyon, 1997. Status and trends of the Washington translocated sea otter population. Presentation at the Sixth Joint US-Russia Sea Otter Workshop, November 9–15, 1997, Forks, Washington.
Jameson, R. J., K. W. Kenyon, A. M. Johnson & H. N. Wight, 1982. History and status of translocated sea otter populations in North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 10: 100–107.
Johnson, C. R. & K. H. Mann, 1988. Diversity, patterns of adaptation, and stability of Nova Scotian kelp beds. Ecological Monographs 58: 129–154.CrossRef
Kalvass, P. E. & J. M. Hendrix, 1997. The California red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, fishery: catch, effort, and management trends. Marine Fisheries Review 59(2): 1–17.
Keats, D. W., G. R. South & D. H. Steele, 1990. Effects of an experimental reduction in grazing by green sea urchins on a benthic macroalgal community in eastern Newfoundland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 68: 181–193.
Kvitek, R. G., P. J. Iampietro & C. E. Bowlby, 1998. Sea otters and benthic prey communities: a direct test of the sea otter as keystone predator in Washington state. Marine Mammal Science 14: 895–902.CrossRef
Lai, H. L. & A. Bradbury, 1998. A modified catch-at-size analysis model for a red sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) population. In Jamieson, G. S. & A. Campbell (eds), Proceedings of the North Pacific Symposium on Invertebrate Stock Assessment and Management. Canadian Special Publications in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 125: 85–96.
Laidre, K. L., R. J. Jameson, S. J. Jeffries, R. C. Hobbs, C. E. Bowlby & G. R. VanBlaricom, 2002. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington State. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30: 1172–1181.
Laur, D. R., A. W. Ebeling & D. A. Coon, 1988. Effects of sea otter foraging on subtidal reef communities off central California. In VanBlaricom, G. R. & J. A. Estes (eds), The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 151–168.
Lawrence, J. M., 1975. On the relationships between marine plants and sea urchins. Oceanogr Marine Biology Annual Review 13: 213–286.
Lebednik, P. A., F. C. Weinmann & R. E. Norris, 1971. Spatial and seasonal distributions of marine algal communities at Amchitka Island, Alaska. Bioscience 21: 656–660.CrossRef
Mattison, J. E., J. D. Trent, A. L. Shanks, T. B. Akin & J. S. Pearse, 1977. Movement and feeding activity of red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
) adjacent to a kelp forest. Marine Biology 39: 25–30.CrossRef
Neushul, M., 1967. Studies of subtidal marine vegetation in western Washington. Ecology 48: 83–94.CrossRef
Ostfeld, R. S., 1982. Foraging strategies and prey switching in the California sea otter. Oecologia 53: 170–178.CrossRef
Pace, D., 1981. Kelp community development in Barkley Sound, British Columbia following sea urchin removal. In Fogg, G. E. & W. E. Jones (eds), Proceedings of the Eighth International Seaweed Symposium, 18–23 August, 1974. Bangor, North Wales, The Marine Science Laboratories, Menai Bridge, United Kingdom, 457–463.
Paine, R. T., 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100: 65–75.CrossRef
Paine, R. T., 1974. Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia 15: 93–120.CrossRef
Paine, R. T., 1969. A note on trophic complexity and community stability. American Naturalist 103: 91–93.CrossRef
Paine, R. T. & R. L. Vadas, 1969. The effects of grazing by sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus
spp., on benthic algal populations. Limnology and Oceanography 14: 710–719.CrossRef
Pearse, J. S. & A. H. Hines, 1979. Expansion of a central California kelp forest following the mass mortality of sea urchins. Marine Biology 51: 83–91.CrossRef
Pearse, J. S. & A. H. Hines, 1987. Long-term population dynamics of sea urchins in a central California kelp forest: rare recruitment and rapid decline. Marine Ecology Progress Series 39: 275–283.
Pfister, C. A. & A. Bradbury, 1996. Harvesting red sea urchins: recent effects and future predictions. Ecological Applications 6: 298–310.CrossRef
Quinn, G. P. & M. J. Keough, 2002. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. University Press Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Reed, D. C., 1990. The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment. Ecology 71: 776–787.CrossRef
Reed, D. C., D. R. Laur & A. W. Ebeling, 1988. Variation in algal dispersal and recruitment: the importance of episodic events. Ecological Monographs 58: 321–335.CrossRef
Riedman, M. L. & J. A. Estes, 1988. A review of the history, distribution and foraging ecology of sea otters. In VanBlaricom, G. R. & J. A. Estes (eds), The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 4–21.
Riedman, M. L. & J. A. Estes, 1990. The sea otter (Enhydra lutris): behavior, ecology, and natural history US Fish and Wildlife Service. Biological Report 90(14): 1–126.
Rogers-Bennett, L., H. C. Fastenau & C. M. Dewees, 1998. Recovery of red sea urchin beds following experimental harvest. In Mooi, R. & M. Telford (eds), Echinoderms: San Francisco, Proceedings of the Ninth International Echinoderm Conference, August 5–9, 1996. San Francisco, California, 805–809.
Schroeter, S. C., J. D. Dixon, J. Kastendiek, R. O. Smith & J. R. Bence, 1993. Detecting the ecological effects of environmental impacts: a case study of kelp forest invertebrates. Ecological Applications 3: 331–350.CrossRef
Schiel, D. R. & M. S. Foster, 1986. The structure of subtidal algal stands in temperate waters. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews 24: 265–307.
SPSS, 1996. SPSS® Base 7.5 for Windows™. User’s guide. Prentice-Hall, Paramus.
Tegner, M. J., 1980. Multispecies consideration of resource management in southern California kelp beds. In Pringle, J. D., G. J. Sharp & J. F. Caddy (eds), Proceedings of the Workshop on the Relationship between Sea Urchin Grazing and Commercial Plant/animal Harvesting. Canadian Technical Reports of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 954: 125–143.
Vadas, R. L., 1968. The Ecology of Agarum and the Kelp Bed Community. PhD dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle.
Vadas R. L., 1972. Ecological implications of culture studies on Nereocystis luetkeana. Journal of Phycology 8: 196–203.
Vadas, R. L., 1977. Preferential feeding: an optimization strategy in sea urchins Ecological Monographs 47: 337–371.CrossRef
Van Alstyne, K. L., J. J. McCarthy, C. L. Hustead & D. O. Duggins, 1999. Geographic variation in polyphenolic levels of Northeastern Pacific kelps and rockweeds. Marine Biology 133: 371–379.CrossRef
VanBlaricom, G. R., 1996. Saving the sea otter population in California: contemporary problems and future pitfalls. Endangered Species UPDATE 13(12): 85–91.
VanBlaricom, G. R. & J. A. Estes (eds), 1988. The Community Ecology of Sea Otters. Ecological Studies. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
Watanabe, J. M. & C. Harrold, 1991. Destructive grazing by sea urchins Strongylocentrotis spp in a central California kelp forest: potential roles of depth, recruitment, and predation. Marine Ecology Progress Series 71: 125–141.
Watson, J. C., 1993. The effects of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) foraging on shallow rocky communities off northwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. PhD Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Wendell, F. E., 1994. Relationship between sea otter range expansion and red abalone abundance and size distribution in central California. California Fish and Game 80: 45–56.
Wendell, F. E., 1996. The State of California’s role in the conservation of sea otters and other aquatic resources. Endangered Species UPDATE 13(12): 82–84.
Wendell, F. E., R. Hardy, J. Ames & R. Burge, 1986. Temporal and spatial patterns in sea otter, Enhydra lutris, range expansion and in the loss of Pismo clam fisheries. California Fish and Game 72: 197–212.
Witman, J. D., 1987. Subtidal coexistence: storms, grazing, mutualism, and the zonation of kelps and mussels. Ecological Monographs 57: 167–187.CrossRef
Zar, J. H., 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.