Advanced glycation end products: role in pathology of diabetic cardiomyopathy
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- Bodiga, V.L., Eda, S.R. & Bodiga, S. Heart Fail Rev (2014) 19: 49. doi:10.1007/s10741-013-9374-y
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Increasing evidence demonstrates that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a pivotal role in the development and progression of diabetic heart failure, although there are numerous other factors that mediate the disease response. AGEs are generated intra- and extracellularly as a result of chronic hyperglycemia. Then, following the interaction with receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), a series of events leading to vascular and myocardial damage are elicited and sustained, which include oxidative stress, increased inflammation, and enhanced extracellular matrix accumulation resulting in diastolic and systolic dysfunction. Whereas targeting glycemic control and treating additional risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, are mandatory to reduce chronic complications and prolong life expectancy in diabetic patients, drug therapy tailored to reducing the deleterious effects of the AGE–RAGE interactions is being actively investigated and showing signs of promise in treating diabetic cardiomyopathy and associated heart failure. This review shall discuss the formation of AGEs in diabetic heart tissue, potential targets of glycation in the myocardium, and underlying mechanisms that lead to diabetic cardiomyopathy and heart failure along with the use of AGE inhibitors and breakers in mitigating myocardial injury.