Article

Heart Failure Reviews

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 321-337

First online:

Involvement of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase in the effects of the renin–angiotensin fragment angiotensin IV: a review

  • Bart StragierAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Drug Information, Research Group Experimental Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • , Dimitri De BundelAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Drug Information, Research Group Experimental Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • , Sophie SarreAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Drug Information, Research Group Experimental Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • , Ilse SmoldersAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Drug Information, Research Group Experimental Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • , Georges VauquelinAffiliated withDepartment of Molecular and Biochemical Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • , Alain DupontAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • , Yvette MichotteAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Drug Information, Research Group Experimental Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel Email author 
  • , Patrick VanderheydenAffiliated withDepartment of Molecular and Biochemical Pharmacology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

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Abstract

For decades, angiotensin (Ang) II was considered as the end product and the only bioactive peptide of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). However, later studies revealed biological activity for other Ang fragments. Amongst those, Ang IV has drawn a lot of attention since it exerts a wide range of central and peripheral effects including the ability to enhance learning and memory recall, anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenic properties, protection against cerebral ischemia, activity at the vascular level and an involvement in atherogenesis. Some of these effects are AT1 receptor dependent but others most likely result from the binding of Ang IV to insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) although the exact mechanism(s) of action that mediate the Ang IV-induced effects following this binding are until now not fully known. Nevertheless, three hypotheses have been put forward: since Ang IV is an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of IRAP, its in vivo effects might result from a build-up of IRAP’s neuropeptide substrates. Second, IRAP is co-localized with the glucose transporter GLUT4 in several tissue types and therefore, Ang IV might interact with the uptake of glucose. A final and more intriguing hypothesis ascribes a receptor function to IRAP and hence an agonist role to Ang IV. Taken together, it is clear that further work is required to clarify the mechanism of action of Ang IV. On the other hand, a wide range of studies have made it clear that IRAP might become an important target for drug development against different pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy and ischemia.

Keywords

Angiotensin IV Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase Memory Epilepsy