Expression of Cytoskeletal, Linkage and Extracellular Proteins in Failing Dog Myocardium
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- Sharov, V.G., Kostin, S., Todor, A. et al. Heart Fail Rev (2005) 10: 297. doi:10.1007/s10741-005-7544-2
In the setting of chronic heart failure (HF), progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and chamber remodeling may be due, in part, to altered expression and disorganization of cytoskeletal, linkage and extracellular proteins. This brief review describes changes in expression of cytoskeletal, linkage and extracellular protein using LV tissue obtained from dogs with progressive HF produced by multiple sequential intracoronary microembolizations. LV tissue samples from 6 untreated HF dogs (LV ejection fraction 20% to 25%) and 3 normal dogs were used. Sections from freshly frozen tissue were prepared, immunostained for specific proteins and studies by confocal microscopy. In failing hearts, confocal microscopy showed disorganization of key cytoskeletal proteins that, when combined with the loss of myofilaments and sarcomeric skeleton, suggest substantial cardiomyocyte remodeling. Cardiomyocytes in areas bordering old infarcts invariably exhibited disorganization of α-actinin. The cytoskeleton protein desmin showed increased expression in areas of extensive fibrosis. Staining for pancadherin showed interruptions of intercalated disks in areas of intensive interstitial fibrosis. Observation of increased fibronectin and increased interstitial cellularity based on vimentin labeling is suggestive of ongoing fibrosis. Based on these findings, we conclude that the structural changes observed in failing LV myocardium of dogs with intracoronary microembolizations-induced HF are extensive and typical of those seen and previously described in LV myocardium of explanted failed human hearts. The observed structural changes in this experimental model of HF also support the notion that these cytoskeletal, linkage and extracellular disorganization of structural proteins may be important maladaptations that contribute, albeit in part, to the progression of LV dysfunction and remodeling characteristic of the HF state.