63 Am. Jur. Trials. (2008). Decisionmaking at the end of life § 1.
410 Ill. Comp. State. Ann. 305/2 (2008).
Abramowitz, M., & Weiss, R. (2007). A Scientific Advance, a Political Question Mark. Washington Post
, November 21, 2007. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/11/20/AR2007112001909_pf.html
Adrian, H., & Levitan, S. A. (2006). Brave new world: Ethical issues involving surrogate health care decisions. Probate and Property,
, 31–37.Google Scholar
Advance health care directive legislation. (2009). (Unless otherwise specified, all citations are to Westlaw through 2009 legislation.): Ala. Code §§ 22-8A-1 to -14, 26-1-2; Alaska Stat. §§ 13.52.010-.140, .160, .253, .275, .290, .300, .395; Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 36-3201 to -3224, 3231, 3261 to -3262; Ark. Code Ann. § 20-13-104, 20-17-201 to -218; Cal. Prob. Code §§ 4600-4701, 4800-4806; Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 15-14-503 to -509, 15-18-101 to -113, 15-18.5-101 to -105; Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 19a-570 to -580 g, 45a-562; Del. Code Ann. tit. 16, §§ 2501-2518; D.C. Code §§ 7-621 to -630, 21-2201 to -2213; Fla. Stat. Ann. § 744.3115, 765.101-.113, .201-.205, .301-.306, .401-.404; Ga. Code Ann. §§ 31-32-1 to -14; Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 327G-1 to -14, 551D-2.5; Idaho Code Ann. §§ 39-4501 to -4515; 755 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 35/1 to 35/10, 45/4-1 to 45/4-12; Ind. Code Ann. §§ 16-36-4-1 to -21, 30-5-5-16 to -17, 30-5-6-5, 30-5-7-3 to -4; Iowa Code Ann. §§ 144A.1 to A.6, A.8 to A.12, 144B.1 to B.12, 142C.12B; Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 58-625 to -632, 65-28,101 to 28,109; Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 311.621-.643; La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 40:1299.58.1-.10; Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 18-A, § 5-506, 5-801 to -817; Md. Code Ann., Health-Gen. §§ 5-601 to -618, 5-619 to -626; Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 201D, §§ 1-17; Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. §§ 700.5501-.5520; Minn. Stat. Ann. §§ 145B.01-.17, 145C.01-.16, 523.07-.09; Miss. Code Ann. §§ 41-41-201 to -229; Mo. Ann. Stat. §§ 404.800-.872, 459.010-.055; Mont. Code Ann. §§ 50-9-101 to -206, 50-9-501 to -505; Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 20-401 to -416, 30-3401 to -3432; Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 449.535-.690, 449.800-.860, 449.900-.965; N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 137-J:1 to -J:23; N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 26:2H-53 to -78; N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 24-7A- 1 to -18; N.Y. Pub. Health §§ 2980-2994; N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. §§ 32A-15 to -27, 90-320 to -322; N.D. Cent. Code §§ 23-06.5-01 to -18; Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 1337.11-.20, 2133.01-.16; Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 58, §§ 1071-1077, tit. 63, §§ 3101.1 to .16, 3102.1 to .3; Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 127.505-.660, .995; 20 Pa. Stat. Ann. §§ 5421-5471; R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 23-4.10-1 to -12, 23-4.11-1 to -15; S.C. Code Ann. §§ 44-77-10 to -160, 62-5-501 to -505; S.D. Codified Laws §§ 34-12D-1 to -22, 59-7-2.5; Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 32-11-101 to -113, 34-6-201 to -18, 68-30-117; Tex. Health & Safety Code Ann. §§ 166.001-.011, .031-.053, .151-.166; Utah Code Ann. §§ 75-2a-101 to -125; Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 18, § 9700-9720; Va. Code Ann. § 37.2-805.1, 54.1-2981 to -2996; Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 11.94.010, 70.122.010-.925; W. Va. Code Ann. §§ 16-30-1 to -25; Wis. Stat. Ann. §§ 154.01-.15, 155.01-.80; Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 35-22-401 to -416.
Advance health care directive legislation that accepts directives from other states. (2009). (Unless otherwise specified, all citations are to Westlaw through 2009 legislation.): Ala. Code § 22-8A-12; Alaska Stat. § 13.52.010; Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 36-3208; Ark. Code Ann. § 20-17-212; Cal. Prob. Code § 4676; Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 15-14-509; Conn. Gen. Stat. § 19a-580 g; Del. Code Ann. tit. 16, § 2517; Fla. Stat. Ann. § 765.112; Ga. Code Ann. § 31-32-5; Haw. Rev. Stat. § 327E-3; Idaho Code Ann. § 39-4514; 755 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 35/9; Iowa Code Ann. § 144A.3, 144B.3; Kan. Stat. Ann. § 58-630; La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1299.58.10; Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 18-A, § 5-802; Md. Code Ann., Health-Gen. § 5-617; Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 201D, § 11; Minn. Stat. Ann. § 145B.16, 145C.16; Mont. Code Ann. § 50-9-111; Neb. Rev. Stat. § 20-414, 30-3408; Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 449.690; N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 137-J:17; N.J. Stat. Ann. § 26:2H-76; N.M. Stat. Ann. § 24-7A-16; N.Y. Pub. Health § 2990; N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 32A-27, 90-321; N.D. Cent. Code § 23-06.5-11; Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 1337.16, 2133.14; Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 58, § 1072.2, tit. 63, § 3101.14; Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 127.515; 20 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 5446, 5464; R.I. Gen. Laws § 23-4.10 to -12; S.C. Code Ann. § 44-77-30, 62-5-504; S.D. Codified Laws § 34-12D-22; Tenn. Code Ann. § 32-11-111, 34-6-215; Tex. Health & Safety Code Ann. § 166.005; Utah Code Ann. § 75-2a-121; Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 18, § 9716; Va. Code Ann. § 54.1-2993; Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 70.122.030; W. Va. Code Ann. § 16-30-21; Wis. Stat. Ann. § 154.11, 155.70; Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 35-22-416.
Advance health care directive legislation that includes a statutory form. (2009). (Unless otherwise specified, all citations are to Westlaw through 2009 legislation.): Ala. Code § 22-8A-4; Alaska Stat. § 13.52.300; Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 36-3224, 3251, 3261; Ark. Code Ann. § 20-17-202; Cal. Prob. Code § 4701; Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 15-18-104; Conn. Gen. Stat. § 19a-575, 575a, 577; Del. Code Ann. tit. 16 § 2505; D.C. Code § 7-622, 21-2207; Fla. Stat. Ann. § 765.203, .303; Ga. Code Ann. § 31-32-4; Haw. Rev. Stat. § 327E-16; Idaho Code Ann. § 39-4510; 755 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 35/3, 45/4-10; Ind. Code Ann. §§ 16-36-4-10 to -11, 30-5-5-17; Iowa Code Ann. § 144A.3, 144B.5; Kan. Stat. Ann. § 58-632, 65-28,103; Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 311.625; La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1299.58.3; Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 18-A § 5-804; Md. Code Ann., Health-Gen. § 5-603; 3A Mich. Legal Forms § 6D:39; Minn. Stat. Ann. § 145B.04, 145C.16; Miss. Code Ann. § 41-41-209; Mo. Ann. Stat. § 459.015; Mont. Code Ann. § 50-9-103; Neb. Rev. Stat. § 20-404, 30-3408; Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 449.610-.613, .830; N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 137-J:19, J:20; 10 N.J. Forms Legal & Bus. §§ 24:107-111; N.M. Stat. Ann. § 24-7A-4; N.Y. Pub. Health § 2981; N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 32A-25.1, 90-321; N.D. Cent. Code § 23-06.5-17; Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 1337.18, Ohio Forms & Transactions §§ 30:53-54; Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 58, § 1072.2, tit. 63, § 3101.4; Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 127.531; 20 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 5471; R.I. Gen. Laws § 23-4.10-2, 23-4.11-3; S.C. Code Ann. § 44-77-50, 62-5-504; S.D. Codified Laws § 34-12D-3; Tenn. Code Ann. § 32-11-105; Tex. Health & Safety Code Ann. § 166.033, .163, .164; Utah Code Ann. § 75-2a-117; Va. Code Ann. § 54.1-2984; Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 70.122.030; W. Va. Code Ann. § 16-30-4; Wis. Stat. Ann. § 154.03, 155.30.
American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians, Gynecologists. (1999). Joint statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Pediatrics,
, 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Civil Liberties Union. (2007). ACLU says new CDC HIV testing recommendations raise health and civil liberties concerns [Press Release], 9/21/2006. Accessed January 29, 2007, from www.aclu.org/hiv/testing/26819prs20060921.html
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Public Law 101-336, as amended by Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008, Public Law 110–325.
Annas, G. J. (1993). Privacy rules for DNA databanks: Protecting coded ‘future diaries’. Journal of the American Medical Association,
, 2346–2350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 36-663. (2008) (as amended by S. 1113, 48th Gen. Assem., 2nd Reg. Sess. (Az. 2008)).
Bartlett, J. G., Branson, B. M., Fenton, K., Hauschild, B. C., Miller, V., & Mayer, K. H. (2008). Opt-out testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States: Progress and challenges. Journal of the American Medical Association,
, 945–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayer, R., & Fairchild, A. L. (2006). Changing the paradigm for HIV testing—The end of exceptionalism. New England Journal of Medicine,
, 647–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Billings, P., et al. (1992). Discrimination as a consequence of genetic testing. American Journal of Human Genetics,
, 476–482.Google Scholar
Blanck, P. D., & Marti, M. W. (1998). Genetic discrimination and the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act: Emerging legal, empirical, and policy implications. Behavioral Science & the Law,
(4), 411–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, L., Lauby, J., & Batson, H. (2005). HIV testing and the role of individual- and structural-level barriers and facilitators. AIDS Care,
, 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyle, J., & Chiu, A. (2007). Financial impact study of LegalHealth services to New York City hospitals. November, 2007. Accessed August 24, 2008, from http://legalhealth.org/docs/lgh_financial_impact_study.pdf
Branson, B. M., Handsfield, H. H., Lampe, M. A., Janssen, R. S., Taylor, A. W., Lyss, S. B., et al. (2006). Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. Morbidity and Mortality Recommendations and Reports,
, 1–17.Google Scholar
Cal. Health & Safety Code §§ 7185–7195 (West 1976) (Repealed 1999).
Center for Law, Health & Society. (2007). Center participates in reform of Georgia’s advance directives
. Accessed March 29, 2010, from http://law.gsu.edu/clhs/index/news_and_events/center_news?id=254
Centers for Disease Control, Prevention. (2001). Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. Morbidity and Mortality Recommendations and Reports,
, 63–85.Google Scholar
Commission on Human Rights. (2001). Question of the realization in all countries of the economic, social and cultural rights contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and study of special problems which the developing countries face in their efforts to achieve theses human rights. Commission on Human Rights Res. 2001/30, Commission on Human Rights Doc. E/CN.4/RES2001/30, 4(d), (April 20, 2001).
Conference on legal education at the crossroads: ideas to action, part I. (2007). November 2–4, 2007, University of South Carolina School of Law, Columbia, SC. [On-line]. Accessed April 23, 2010, from http://law.sc.edu/crossroads
Conference on legal education at the crossroads: ideas to implementation. (2008). September 5–7, 2008, University of Washington School of Law, Seattle, WA. [On-line] Schedule available. Accessed July 6, 2009, from www.law.washington.edu/News/Articles/schedule_Crossroads.pdf
Conference on legal education at the crossroads, v. 3.0. (2009). September 11–13, 2009, University of Denver Sturm College of Law, Denver, CO. [On-line]. Accessed April 23, 2010, from http://law.du.edu/index.php/assessment-conference
Congressional Research Service. (2008). Genetic information: legal issues relating to discrimination and privacy
. Accessed June 24, 2009, from http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/genetics/ndishlth.htm
Cruzan by Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dep’t of Health et al., 497 U.S. 261 (1990).
Das-Douglas, M., Zetola, N. M., Klausner, J. D., & Colfax, G. N. (2008). Written informed consent and HIV testing rates: The San Francisco experience. American Journal of Public Health,
, 1544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davey, M. (2009). U. of Nebraska defeats tighter limits on stem cell research. The New York Times
, November 20, 2009. Accessed: December 7, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/21/us/21stem.html
Do, T. D., Chen, S., McFarland, W., Secura, G. M., Behel, S. K., MacKellar, D. A., et al. (2005). HIV testing patterns and unrecognized HIV infection among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men in San Francisco. AIDS Education and Prevention,
, 540–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Do, T. D., Hudes, E. S., Proctor, K., Han, C. S., & Choi, K. H. (2006). HIV testing trends and correlates among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men in two U.S. cities. AIDS Education and Prevention,
, 44–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dolgin, E. (2009). NIH loosens stem cell consent rules. TheScientist.com
, July 6, 2009. Accessed December 7, 2009, from http://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/55814/
Editorial. (2006). Moralizing stem cell research. Nature Immunology,
Editorial. (2009). The rules on stem cells. The New York Times
, March 16, 2009. Accessed August 23, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/16/opinion/16mon1.html
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, Public Law 93-406.
Fernandez, M., Perrino, T., Royal, S., Ghany, D., & Bowen, G. (2002). To test or not to test: Are Hispanic men at highest risk for HIV getting tested? AIDS Care,
, 375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleishman, S. B., Retkin, R., Brandfield, J., & Braun, V. (2006). The attorney as the newest member of the cancer treatment team. Journal of Clinical Oncology,
(13), 2123–2126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freedberg, K. A., & Samet, J. H. (1999). Think HIV: Why physicians should lower their threshold for HIV testing. Archives of Internal Medicine,
, 1994–2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallanis, T. P. (1999). Write and wrong: Rethinking the way we communicate health-care decisions. Connecticut Law Review,
, 1015–1043.Google Scholar
Galloway, J. (2009). Republicans and embryonic stem cell research. Atlanta Journal Constitution
, March 15, 2009. Accessed March 16, 2009, from http://blogs.ajc.com/political-insider-jim-galloway/2009/03/15/republicans-and-embryonic-stem-cell-research/cxntlid=homepage_tab_newstab
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, Public Law 110-233.
Glick, H. R. (1992). The right to die: Policy innovation and its consequences
. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Goldman, B. (2008). Embryonic stem cells 2.0. Nature Reports Stem Cells
, May 1, 2008. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.nature.com/stemcells/2008/0805/080501/full/stemcells.2008.67.html
Gostin, L. O. (2006). HIV Screening in health care settings: Public health and civil liberties in conflict? Journal of the American Medical Association,
, 2023–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, J., & Kotulak, R. (2006). Call for routine HIV testing gets mixed response. Chicago Tribune, May 10, 2006.
Grant, B. (2009). Obama good for science, experts say. The Scientist.com
, November 5, 2008. Accessed May 22, 2009, from http://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/55167/
Gravitz, L. (2009). Provoking our inner stem cells: A startup aims to spur the body’s native stem cells to heal disease. Technology Review
, July 17, 2009. Accessed July 19, 2009, from http://www.technologyreview.com/business/23017/
Guyer, B. (2001). “The embarrassment of riches”; An historical theme for a children’s health agenda in 21st century America (commentary). Maternal and Child Health Journal,
(3), 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haacker, M. (2004). The impact of HIV/AIDS on government finance and public services. In M. Haacker (Ed.), The macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS
(pp. 198–268). Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
Harris, G. (2009). Rules will allow financing for old stem cell lines. The New York Times
, July 6, 2009. Accessed July 7, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/07/science/07stem.html
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Public Law 104-191.
Health Law Partnership. (2009). On-line Web site available. Accessed July 7, 2009, from http://healthlawpartnership.org/help/
Henderson, M. (2009). Blindness is the next target for stem-cell therapy after US opens way to new trials. The Times
, January 24, 2009. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article5576335.ece
Herndon, B., Asch, S. M., Kilbourne, A. M., Wang, M., Lee, M., Wenzel, S. L., et al. (2003). Prevalence and predictors of HIV testing among a probability sample of homeless women in Los Angeles County. Public Health Reports,
, 261–269.Google Scholar
Holtgrave, D. R. (2007). Costs and consequences of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recommendations for opt-out HIV testing. PloS Medicine,
, e194. http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/120/3/e734
. Accessed June 29, 2009.
Hudson, K. L., Rothenberg, K. H., Andrews, L. B., Kahn, M. J. E., & Collins, F. S. (1995). Genetic discrimination and health insurance—An urgent need for reform. Science,
, 391–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulse, C. (2009). With Bush ban gone, stem cell research will proliferate; Democrats debate methods to end stem cell ban. The New York Times
, January 1, 2009. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/03/washington/03stem.html
In re Conroy, 486 A.2d 1209 (N.J., 1985).
In re Quinlan, 355 A.2d 647 (N.J. 1976).
International conference on the future of legal education. (2008). February 2–23, 2008, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. Webcasts, Abstracts, Papers, Presentations available. Accessed July 6, 2009, from http://law.gsu.edu/FutureOfLegalEducationConference/
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. (1966). G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force Jan. 3, 1976.
Inungu, J. N. (2002). Potential barriers to seeking human immunodeficiency virus testing among adults in the United States: Data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey. AIDS Patient Care and STDs,
, 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaiser, E. (2004). The Americans with Disabilities Act: An unfulfilled promise for employment discrimination plaintiffs. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Labor & Employment Law,
, 735–767.Google Scholar
Karoub, J. (2009) Stem cell researchers watching legislative moves. GoogleNews
(AP), December 9, 2009. Accessed December 11, 2009, from http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jOo72mEZYjr0lowTsK_JRNkZy08wD9CFPT400
Kass-Bartelmes, B. L., Hughes, R., & Rutherford, M. K. (2003). Advance care planning: Preferences for care at the end of life. Research in Action,
, 1–18.Google Scholar
Keim, B. (2009a). With Bush ban gone, stem cell research will proliferate. Wired.com
, March 9, 2009. Accessed December 8, 2009, from http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/03/obamastemcells/
Keim, B. (2009b). Bush stem cell ban wrong, but not anti-science. Wired.com
, March 11, 2009. Accessed December 8, 2009, from http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/03/obamastemcells2/
Kenyon, C., Sandel, M., Silverstein, M., Shakir, A., & Zuckerman, B. (2007). Revisiting the social history for child health (commentary). Pediatrics,
(3), e734–e738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knudsen, E. I., Heckman, J. J., Cameron, J. L., & Shonkopf, J. P. (2006). Economic, neurobiological, and behavioral perspectives on building America’s future workforce. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,
(27), 10155–10162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolata, G. (2007). Man who helped start stem cell war may end it. The New York Times
, November 22, 2007. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/22/science/22stem.html
Korbkin, R., & Rajkumar, R. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act—A half-step toward risk sharing. New England Journal of Medicine,
(4), 335–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krauthammer, C. (2007). Stem cell vindication. Washington Post
, November 30, 2007. Accessed December 7, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/11/29/AR2007112901878_pf.html
Kusmin, B. (2006). Swing low, sweet chariot: Abandoning the disinterested witness requirement for advance directives. American Journal of Law and Medicine,
, 93–116.Google Scholar
Lauerman, J., & Goldstein, A. (2008). AIDS risk to U.S. employees raised as government ignores policy
. Accessed July 5, 2009, from http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aajIF6pGgpL0&refer=us
Letter. (2006). Letter to Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Re: Comments on CDC Revised HIV Testing Guidelines from 54 community based organizations, March 31, 2006. Accessed January 29, 2007, from http://www.champnetwork.org/media/Testing-Letter.pdf
Levine, A. D. (2008). Identifying under- and overperforming countries in research related to human embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell,
(6), 521–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lo, B. (2005). Resolving ethical dilemmas: A guide for clinicians
(3rd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
Lombardo, P. A. (1996). Genetic confidentiality: what’s the big secret? University of Chicago Law School Roundtable,
, 589–614.Google Scholar
Lopez-Quintero, C., Shtarkshall, R., & Neumark, Y. D. (2000). Barriers to HIV-testing among Hispanics in the United States: Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey, 2000. AIDS Patient Care and STDs,
, 672–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyerly, A. D., & Faden, R. R. (2007). Embryos for stem cell research. Science,
, 46–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, S. J. (2004). Developing countries face double burden of disease. Bulletin of the World Health Organization,
(7), 556.Google Scholar
McNeil, Jr., D. G. (2008). Rare treatment is reported to cure AIDS patient. The New York Times
, November 13, 2008. [On-line] Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/14/health/14hiv.html
. (Accessed: March 5, 2009).
Mimiaga, M. J., Goldhammer, H., Belanoff, C., Tetu, A. M., & Mayer, K. H. (2007). Men who have sex with men: Perceptions about sexual risk, HIV and sexually transmitted disease testing, and provider communication. Sexually Transmitted Diseases,
(2), 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, T. H. (2001). Hard cell: The ethics and politics of stem cell research. The American Prospect (Fall 2001), A7–A11.
National Center for Medical–Legal Partnership. (2010). The Medical Legal Partnership Network
. Accessed April 22, 2010, from http://www.medical-legalpartnership.org/mlp-network
National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. (1993). Uniform Health
-Care Decisions Act
. Accessed September, 2008, from http://www.law.upenn.edu/bll/archives/ulc/fnact99/1990s/uhcda93.htm
National Conference of State Legislatures. (2008). Stem Cell Research
. Accessed December 8, 2009, from http://www.ncsl.org/IssuesResearch/Health/EmbryonicandFetalResearchLaws/tabid/14413/Default.aspx
National Institutes of Health. (2000). National Institutes of Health guidelines for research using human pluripotent stem cells. Federal Register,
(220), 32170–32175.Google Scholar
National Institutes of Health. (2001). Notice; withdrawal of NIH guidelines for research using pluripotent stem cells derived from human embryos. Federal Register,
(220), 57107.Google Scholar
National Institutes of Health. (2009a). National Institutes of Health guidelines for human stem cell research. Federal Register,
(128), 51975–51981.Google Scholar
National Institutes of Health. (2009b). First human embryonic stem cell lines approved for use under new NIH guidelines. NIH News
, December 2, 2009. Accessed December 3, 2009, from http://www.nih.gov/news/health/dec2009/od-02.htm
Neergard, L. (2009). Analysis: Stem cell payoff wait’s decades not days. ABC News
, March 16, 2009. Accessed December 8, 2009, from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStoryid=7090268
Nugent, R. (2008). Chronic diseases in developing countries. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,
(7), 70–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Public Law 91-596.
Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 127.531 (West 2009).
Patient Self-Determination Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1395 cc(f) (2000).
Peters, P. G., Jr. (1998). The illusion of autonomy at the end of life: Unconsented life support and the wrongful life analogy. UCLA Law Review,
, 673–731.Google Scholar
Pollack, A. (2009a). First stem cell drug fails 2 late-stage clinical trials. The New York Times
, September 8, 2009. Accessed September 9, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/09/health/research/09drug.html?hpw
Pollack, A. (2009b). F.D.A. approves a stem cell trial. The New York Times
, January 23, 2009. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/business/23stem.html
President Barack Obama. (2009). Remarks of President Barack Obama
—as prepared for delivery, signing of stem cell Executive Order and scientific integrity Presidential Memorandum
. Washington, D.C., March 9, 2009. Accessed December 7, 2009, from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/remarks-of-the-president-as-prepared-for-delivery-signing-of-stem-cell-executive-order-and-scientific-integrity-presidential-memorandum
President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine, Biomedical, Behavioral Research. (1983). Deciding to forego life-sustaining treatment: Ethical, medical, and legal issues in treatment decisions
. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
Public Health Service Act, Title 42 United States Code, Chapter 6A.
Reilly, P. R. (1999a). Genetic discrimination. In C. Long (Ed.), Genetic testing and the use of information
(pp. 106–133). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
Reilly, P. R. (1999b). Efforts to regulate the collection and use of genetic information. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,
(11), 1066–1070.Google Scholar
Retkin, R., Brandfield, J., Lawton, E., Zuckerman, B., & DeFrancesco, D. (2007). Lawyers and doctors working together—A formidable team. The Health Lawyer,
(1), 33–36.Google Scholar
R.I. Gen. Laws § 23-6-12 (2008).
Sabatino, C. P. (2006). Effective planning for health care decision making. In: Elder law: issues, answers, and opportunities (pp. 249–272). Philadelphia, PA: American Law Institute-American Bar Association, Course Materials 054.
Sandel, M., & Zotter, J. (2000). How substandard housing affects children’s health. Contemporary Pediatrics,
(10), 134–148.Google Scholar
Sanders, G. D., Bayoumi, A. M., Sundaram, V., Bilir, S. P., Neukermans, C. P., Rydzak, C. E., et al. (2005). Cost-effectiveness of screening for HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. New England Journal of Medicine,
, 570–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schloendorff v. Society of New York Hospital, 105 N.E. 92 (N.Y. 1914).
Schulman, D. I., Lawton, E., Tremblay, P. R., Retkin, R., & Sandel, M. (2008). Public health legal services: a new vision (December 17, 2008). Boston College Law School. Boston
College Law School Faculty Papers
. Paper 217. Accessed July 6, 2009, from http://lsr.nellco.org/bc/bclsfp/papers/217
Scott, C. (2000). Why law pervades medicine: An essay on ethics in health care. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy,
, 245–303.Google Scholar
Social Security Act Amendments of 1965, Public Law 89–97.
Staff. (2009a). Scientists call up stem cell troops to repair the body using new drug combinations. EurekaAlert!
, Janaury 8, 2009. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-01/icl-scu010709.php
Staff. (2009b). Stem cell breakthrough gives new hope to sufferers of muscle-wasting diseases, EurekaAlert!
, March 5, 2009. Accessed March 5, 2009, from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-03/uons-scb030509.php
Starfield, B. (1992). Effects of poverty on health status. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine,
(1), 17–24.Google Scholar
Statement. (2006). Federal HIV testing initiative can only succeed with expanded healthcare, patient, and provider education, from 34 regional and national organizations, September 21, 2006 (2006). Accessed April 5, 2007, fro mhttp://www.champnetwork.org/media/Testing-Statement-092106.pdf
Stein, R. (2009a). U.S. set to fund more stem cell study. Washington Post
, December 3, 2009. Accessed December 3, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/12/02/AR2009120201955.html
Stein, R. (2009b). Researchers find safer way to produce stem cell alternative: Skin cells transformed without worrisome use of viruses. Washington Post
, March 2, 2009. Accessed July 12, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/03/01/AR2009030101741.html
Stolberg, S. G. (2007). Bush vetoes measure on stem cell research. New York Times
, June 21, 2007. Accessed: July 12, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/21/washington/21stem.html
Stolle, D., & Wexler, D. (1997). Therapeutic jurisprudence and preventive law: A combined concentration to invigorate the everyday practice of law. Arizona Law Review,
, 25–33.Google Scholar
Stoto, M., Almario, D., & McCormick, M. (Eds.). (1999). Reducing the odds: Preventing perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States
. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
Stuckey, R. (2007). Best practices for legal education: A vision and a road map
. Columbia, SC: Clinical Legal Education Association.Google Scholar
Sullivan, W. M., Colby, A., Wegner, J. W., Bond, L., & Shulman, L. S. (2007). Educating lawyers: Preparation for the profession of law
. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Tames, P., Tremblay, P., Wagner, T., Lawton, E., & Smith, L. (2003). The lawyer is in: Why some doctors are prescribing legal remedies for their patients, and how the legal profession can support this effort. Boston University Public Interest Law Journal,
(2–3), 505–527.Google Scholar
Teno, J. M., Lynn, J., Wenger, N. S., Phillips, R. S., Murphy, D. P., Connors, A. F., Jr., et al. (1997). Advance directives for seriously-ill hospitalized patients: Effectiveness with the Patient Self-Determination Act and the SUPPORT intervention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society,
(4), 500–507.Google Scholar
The AIDS Institute. (2006). Letter to Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Re: Comments on CDC Revised Testing Guidelines, March 29, 2006. Accessed January 29, 2007, from http://www.theaidsinstitute.org/downloads/taicdctestingcomments.pdf
The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. (2008). Declining majority of Americans favor embryonic stem cell research
. Accessed January 4, 2009, from http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=317
The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2006). More Americans discussing—and planning—end-of-life treatment: Strong public support for right to die
. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
The President. (2009). Executive Order 13505 of March 9, 2009: Removing barriers to responsible scientific research involving human stem cells. Federal Register,
(46), 10667–10668.Google Scholar
The President’s Council on Bioethics. (2004). Monitoring stem cell research
. Accessed January 4, 2009, from http://bioethics.gov/reports/stemcell/index.html
Thomson, J. A., Itskovitz-Eldor, J., Shapiro, S. S., Waknitz, M. A., Swiergiel, J. J., Marshall, V. S., et al. (1998). Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science,
(5391), 1145–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tobin, K., Tang, A., Gilbert, S., & Latkin, C. (2004). Correlates of HIV antibody testing among a sample of injection drug users: The role of social and contextual factors. AIDS and Behavior,
, 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. (2000). General comment no. 14: The right to the highest attainable standard of health. 9, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/2000/4 (July 4, 2000).
U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child. (2003). General comment no. 4: Adolescent health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. CRC/GC/2003/4 (July 1, 2003).
U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. (1989). G.A. res. 44/25, annex, 44 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49). at 167, U.N. Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into force Sept. 2, 1990.
United Nations Development Program. (2007). Human development report 2007
. Accessed June 29, 2009, from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2007-2008/
United Nations Treaty Collection. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child
. Accessed June 29, 2009, from http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspxsrc=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV11&chapter=4&lang=en
Vedantam, S. (2009). Rules on stem cell research are eased more lines eligible for federal funding. Washington Post
, July 7, 2009. Accessed July 7, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/07/06/AR2009070602076.html?nav=emailpage
Wade, N. (2009). New stem cell lines open to research. The New York Times
, December 2, 2009. Accessed December 3, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/03/science/03stem.html
Wettach, J. R. (2008). The law school clinic as a partner in a medical–legal partnership. Tennessee Law Review,
, 305–313.Google Scholar
Wolf, L. E., Donoghoe, A., & Lane, T. (2007). Implementing routine HIV testing: The role of state law. PloS ONE,
, e1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolf, L. E., Lo, B., & Gostin, L. O. (2004). Legal barriers to implementing recommendations for universal, routine prenatal HIV testing. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics,
, 137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Health Organization. (2004). Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health
World Health Organization. (2006). Obesity and overweight
. Accessed June 29, 2009, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html
Zuckerman, B., Sandel, M., Smith, L., & Lawton, E. (2004). Why pediatricians need lawyers to keep children healthy. Pediatrics,
(1), 224–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar