Genetic engineering approaches to enhance oil content in oilseed crops
Oilseed crops play an important role in the agricultural economy. Apart from being an integral component of human diet and industrial applications, they are also gaining importance as replacement to fossil fuels for meeting the energy needs. The last two decades have been marked by several important events in genetic engineering and identification of gene targets for enhancing seed oil content in oilseed crops, and will aid the successful development of new generation high yielding oil crops. Specifically, genetic engineering has shown real breakthrough in enhancing oil content in oilseed rape, camelina, soybean and maize. Moreover, ongoing research efforts to decipher the possibilities of genetic modifications of key regulators of oil accumulation along with physiological and biochemical studies to understand lipid biosynthesis will set a platform to produce transgenic oilseed crops with enhanced oil content. In this review, we briefly describe different genetic engineering approaches explored by different researchers for enhancing oil content. Further, we discuss a few promising and potential approaches and challenges for engineering oil content in oilseed crops.