Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 59, Issue 8, pp 1899–1906

Characterization of Vitis cinerea Engelm. ex Millardet fruits from the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

Authors

    • Laboratorio de Horticultura, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados en Fitomejoramiento, Facultad de Ciencias AgrícolasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de México
  • Sara Aguirre-Ortega
    • Laboratorio de Horticultura, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados en Fitomejoramiento, Facultad de Ciencias AgrícolasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de México
  • Andrés González-Huerta
    • Facultad de Ciencias AgrícolasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de México
  • Álvaro Castañeda-Vildózola
    • Facultad de Ciencias AgrícolasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de México
  • Edgar Jesús Morales-Rosales
    • Facultad de Ciencias AgrícolasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de México
  • Delfina de Jesús Pérez-López
    • Facultad de Ciencias AgrícolasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de México
Notes on Neglected and Underutilized Crops

DOI: 10.1007/s10722-012-9908-5

Cite this article as:
Franco-Mora, O., Aguirre-Ortega, S., González-Huerta, A. et al. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2012) 59: 1899. doi:10.1007/s10722-012-9908-5

Abstract

The berries of eight plants of Vitis cinerea Engelm. ex Millardet growing in the mountains of the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico, during 2008–2010 (three seasons) were characterized according to the IPGRI descriptor. In addition, the fruit phenolics, total and reducing sugars and total soluble solids (TSS) were determined. Plant 169 produced over 100 fruits per bunch, with a berry weight of 0.32 g; these fruits presented an increased TSS value (20.4°B). The fruit phenolic content was increased in the berries of all the plants (at least 3 mg g−1 fresh weight) compared with the values reported for the commercial cultivars. Principal components 1 and 2 explained nearly 65 % of the observed variance. According to the biplot analysis, three groups were formed. Plants 169 and 183 were correlated with fruits per bunch, seeds per 10 fruits, the weight of berries per bunch, TSS, total sugars, bunch width and length. Plants 176, 188 and 129 were correlated with phenols, reducing sugars, seed weight in 10 fruits, seed length, the weight of 10 fruits, the weight of 100 seeds, and fruit and seed width. Additionally, plants 148, 180 and 184 were associated with peduncle length.

Keywords

ConservationFruit phenolicsPlant genetic resourceRed grapesSugar contentVitis cinerea

Introduction

Although the presence of several types of wild grapevines (Vitis spp.) has been reported, disturbances of the natural environment have reduced the biodiversity of the Vitis (Juss.) genus in Mexico (Franco-Mora et al. 2008a, b; Cruz et al. 2009). Additionally, in several regions of the world, the spread of a small number of cultivars, e.g., ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, ‘Merlot’, and ‘Hyogo’, among others, has contributed to a reduction of grape genetic variability (Boursiquot, 2000; Vacca et al. 2009; Rakonjac et al. 2010). As an initial step to protect and conserve Vitis resources, several countries, e.g., Japan, Spain, and Italy, have begun to describe the morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics of grape resources (Shiraishi and Shiraishi 1997; Ocete et al. 2008; Vacca et al. 2009).

The morphological characterization of wild Mexican grapevines has been reported (Franco-Mora et al. 2008b; Cruz et al. 2009). Moreover, in several countries, such as Spain, Japan, Serbia, and Argentina, among others, a combination of morphological and biochemical characterization has been recommended (Shiraishi and Shiraishi 1997; Asencio et al. 2002; González et al. 2009; Rakonjac et al. 2010). The grapevine descriptor (IPGRI et al. 1997) is one of the most employed methods of grape morphological characterization. Moreover, important qualities have been proposed for the biochemical description of Vitis (Shiraishi 1993, 1996; Shiraishi and Shiraishi 1997), including total sugar content, reducing and non-reducing sugar content, and acid content, as well as some coefficients, such as the α ratio (ratio of non-reducing/reducing sugars). In addition, Varandas et al. (2004) have suggested that the content of reducing sugars, primarily glucose and fructose, in grape skin should be determined in all cultivars because of the close association of these properties with the development of several pests.

In 2005, a national program in Mexico, supported by the National Ministry of Agriculture (SAGARPA), that aims to collect and describe Vitis ecotypes was initiated. Until recently, the principal goals of this program involved the description of vegetative parts, not including the fruit, of the ecotypes of wild grapevines native to two states in Central Mexico, Puebla and Veracruz. As this program developed, a huge population of Vitis cinerea Engelm. ex Millardet was identified in the southern portion of the State of Mexico in Central Mexico (Franco and Cruz 2012). This species is reportedly being used in breeding programs to generate cross partners to produce resistance against fungal diseases and insects. The use of V. cinerea for the production of jelly or liquor has also been reported (Natho 2001; Franco and Cruz 2012).

According to Moore (1991), V. cinerea presents “branchlets slightly to distinctly angled, branchlets of the season covered with dense, short, straight trichomes and/or thin to dense arachnoid pubescence, varying to glabrate. Bark exfoliating in shreds on mature stems, lenticels absent or inconspicuous, pith brown, interrupted by diaphragms at nodes, diaphragms 1.5–3.5 mm thick. Tendrils bifurcate to trifurcate, a tendril or inflorescence present at only 2 consecutive nodes, nodes of branchlets of the season often banded with red pigmentation, nodes not glaucous. Leaves with petioles about as long as the blades, puberulent to pubescent with hirtellous trichomes, thin arachnoid pubescence commonly present as well; blades cordiform, unlobed to 3-shouldered, occasionally 3-lobed, the apex acute to more commonly acuminate; margins crenate to dentate; upper surface of mature leaves glabrous to pubescent, lower surface not glaucous, slightly to moderately arachnoid pubescent, varying to glabrous, the pubescent mostly whitish; hirtellous trichomes also commonly present along the veins and as small tufts in the vein axils; stipulates 1–3 mm long. Panicles 10–25 cm long, usually broadly triangular in outline, infrutescence usually with more than 25 berries; 3 or 4 seeded berries 4-8 mm in diameter, black with little or no glaucescence, lenticels absent. Seed brown, obovoid, 2-4 mm long”. The same author noted that four varieties of this Vitis species had previously been identified: V. cinerea var. helleri (L. H. Bailey) M. O. Moore, V. cinerea var. cinerea, V. cinerea var. floridana Munson and V. cinerea var. baileyana (Munson) Comeaux.

The next steps in the assessment of the population of V. cinerea found in the southern region of the State of Mexico are its morphological and biochemical characterization and the study of potential uses for this plant genetic resource. The aim of this study was to determine the variation among plants over 3 years. The fruits of eight plants growing in the mountains of Temascaltepec and San Simón de Guerrero, Mexico, were morphologically characterized using an IPGRI-based method. In addition, total and reducing sugars and the content of phenolic compounds and total soluble solids (TSS) were determined.

Materials and methods

Sampling

During three consecutive years, i.e., 2008–2010, the fruits of eight representative plants of V. cinerea growing in the municipalities of Temascaltepec and San Simón de Guerrero in the southern portion of the State of Mexico (Table 1) were collected. These fruits were morphologically characterized with five replicates each with respect to most of the items suggested by the descriptor of grapevines (IPGRI et al. 1997), including bunch width and length; length of peduncle; number of fruits per bunch; berry weight per bunch; weight of 10 fruits; and fruit width. In addition, the seed length and width; number and weight of seeds per 10 fruits; and the weight of 100 seeds were determined. In the flesh, according to Shiraishi (1993), TSS and the total and reducing sugars were determined using the anthrone and Nelson-Somogyi methods, respectively (Sadasivam and Manickam 2007). The phenolic compound content was also determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau method (Mora et al. 2009). For most of the biochemical determinations, Portuguese ‘Touriga nacional’ and ‘Red seedless’ (V. vinifera L.) berries were tested for comparison, but these samples were not included in the statistical analysis. The number assigned to the plants used in this study is related to the number of individuals listed in a file of almost two hundred and fifty Vitis spp. plants located in eleven municipalities in the southern region of the State of Mexico (Franco and Cruz 2012).
Table 1

Location of the eight plants of Vitis cinerea in the southern region of the State of Mexico

Grapevine

Latitude

Longitude

Altitude (m)

129

18°58′04.8″

100°03′33.4″

1,756

148

19°01′38.5″

99°58′52.4″

2,113

169

19°01′35.4″

99°59′40.0″

2,120

176

19°01′32.3″

99°59′24.9″

2,116

180

19°01′42.7″

99°58′41.4″

2,120

183

19°02′11.9″

99°59′43.2″

2,100

184

19°02′26.1″

100°00′47.5″

1,910

188

19°02′07.1″

99°59′50.3″

1,896

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed in a trial with two fixed factors: plants as the first factor and years as the second factor. When the F value was significant, the means were compared using Tukey’s test at 0.05. A principal component analysis was performed with the software “statistical analysis system (SAS)” (Sánchez 1995); a biplot graph was then constructed with the program Excel (González et al. 2010).

Results and discussion

Bunch

The bunch length among the eight plants was between 7.9 and 11.2 cm; values of this characteristic were highest in 2008 and subsequently decreased through 2010. The bunch width was constant during the 3 years of study, suggesting that this bunch characteristic is primarily controlled by genetic factors. There was a difference of nearly 2 cm between the highest and lowest value among the plants. However, among plants, a difference of nearly 1.7 cm in the peduncle length was observed, and similar to the bunch length, this value decreased continuously from 2008 to 2010 (Table 2).
Table 2

Characteristics of bunch and peduncle of Vitis cinerea native to the southern region of the State of Mexico

Grapevine

Bunch length (cm)

Bunch width (cm)

Peduncle length (cm)

129

10.1ab

6.4a

3.5abc

148

9.6ab

4.4b

4.3ab

169

9.8ab

5.4ab

3.5abc

176

9.1ab

5.4ab

4.2a

180

7.9b

3.9b

3.0abc

183

11.3a

5.1ab

3.4abc

184

8.0b

4.4b

2.8bc

188

9.8ab

4.6b

2.6c

Year

 2008

10.5a

4.89a

3.80a

 2009

9.0ab

4.99a

3.40ab

 2010

8.9b

5.02a

3.06c

 G × Y

***

**

***

For the grapevines, the data are the average of 3 years, with five replicates per year. For each year, the data are the average of eight plants with five replicates per plant. The values indicated with the same letter are not different by the Tukey test at 0.05. *** Significant at 0.001; ** Significant at 0.01

Berries

The number of berries per bunch ranged from 32 to over 100 (Table 3; Fig. 1), and as expected, this number influenced the fruit weight per bunch (0.881; 0.01). However, in contrast to the results reported by Dokoozlian and Hirschfelt (1995), the fruit number had no effect on fruit size (−0.007; NS). In a wide characterization of berries, Shiraishi and Shiraishi (1997) classified fruit weighting less than 1 g as “very small”; in that work, the species V. arizonica Engelm., V. berlandieri Planch, V. longii W. R. Prince et Prince, V. rupestris Scheele and a F1 of each of the next crosses: V. riparia Michx. × V. rupestris, V. riparia × V. berlandieri and V. berlandieri × V. riparia were classified as very small fruit-producers. However, in this work, the berry weight differed among the 3 years; the observed berry weight was highest in 2010. Berry size depends on several factors, in addition to genetic information, the environmental conditions, mineral nutrition, leaf area and water status may modulate this fruit quality factor (Santesteban and Royo 2006). Thus, the environmental conditions during each tested year most likely affected the fruit size. Moreover, the fruit load changed during the three years and decreased from 2008 to 2010. This observation may suggest an alternate bearing process, a change in insect pollinating activity or presence, and moreover, environmental disturbances.
Table 3

Characteristics of berries of Vitis cinerea native to the southern region of the State of Mexico

Grapevine

Number per bunch

Weight per bunch (g)

Weight of 10 berries (g)

Width (cm)

129

57b

25.9ab

5.5a

0.95ab

148

40bc

7.8e

2.5e

0.75d

169

110a

30.8a

3.3de

0.81cd

176

63b

19.3cd

4.2bc

0.95ab

180

32c

8.7e

3.6cd

0.84c

183

64b

22.9bc

4.8ab

0.95a

184

46bc

13.0de

4.0bd

0.85bc

188

43bc

12.8de

4.4bc

0.95a

Year

 2008

79a

24.67a

4.00b

0.82b

 2009

50b

15.02b

3.24c

0.91a

 2010

42b

13.31b

4.89a

0.92a

 G × Y

***

***

***

***

For the grapevines, the data are the average of 3 years whit five replications per year. For each year, the data are the average of eight plants with five replications per plant. The values indicated with the same letter are not different by the Tukey test at 0.05. ***Significant at 0.001

https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs10722-012-9908-5/MediaObjects/10722_2012_9908_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Fig. 1

Fruits of Vitis cinerea from the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. The line in the first image corresponds to 1 cm and is not relevant to the second image

The content of fruit phenolics was between 2.9 and 10.2 mg of equivalents of tannic acid (ETA) g−1 fresh weight (FW) (Table 4). These values are higher than those reported by Vacca et al. (2009) for Sardinian grapes and Breksa et al. (2010) for raisin grapes; 1.21 mg catechin g−1 FW and 1.1 mg gallic acid g−1 FW, respectively. By contrast, ‘Kishmish chorny’ berries presented 12 and 8 mg equivalents of gallic acid g−1 FW in the ripe and overripe stages, respectively (Doshi et al. 2006). Reynier (2005) classified berries according to their phenolic compound content: high (4–5 mg g−1), medium (approximately 2 mg g−1), and low (less than 1 mg g−1). Thus, three of the plants used in the present study fruited berries with phenolic compound contents greater than the Reynier classification. The rest of the berries exhibited high and medium fruit phenolic contents. Determining the fruit phenolic content is important because this content is closely associated with berry antioxidant capacity, as observed in ‘Kishmish chorny’ berries and raisin grapes (Doshi et al. 2006; Breksa et al. 2010). The current research suggests that there is an opportunity for more detailed studies of the potential use of these wild berries to improve antioxidant intake by the native people of these areas in the southern region of the State of Mexico.
Table 4

Content of phenols, reducing sugars, total sugars and total soluble solids of Vitis cinerea berries native to the southern region of the State of Mexico

Grapevine

Phenols

(mg g−1 FW)

Reducing sugars

(mg g−1 FW)

Total sugars

(mg g−1 FW)

Total soluble solids

(°B)

129

10.2a

161a

279a

18.2bc

148

5.0bc

119ab

248ab

14.3d

169

6.1b

122ab

275a

20.4a

176

3.8cd

112ab

228ab

14.6d

180

3.4cd

125ab

275a

16.7c

183

2.9d

141ab

268a

19.0ab

184

5.0bc

90b

170b

13.6d

188

5.9b

161a

265a

18.3bc

Touriga nacional (flesh)

6.9

232

331

 

Reed seedless (flesh)

0.2

247

450

17.5

Reed seedless (peel)

9.5

196

355

 

Year

 2008

5.7a

124b

240b

16.5b

 2009

5.7a

112b

213b

15.7c

 2010

4.5b

151a

299a

18.5a

G × Y

***

**

***

***

For the grapevines, the data are the average of 3 years with five replicates per year. For years, the data are the average of eight plants with five replicates per plant. The values indicated with the same letter are not different by the Tukey test at 0.05. *** Significant at 0.001; ** Significant at 0.01. The data for ‘Touriga nacional’ and ‘Reed seedless’ are included only for comparison and were not statistically analyzed

Notably, the plants used in the present research were not cultivated and are therefore growing under high environmental pressure; thus, these plants may be producing fruit phenolics in response to environmental factors. Tobar-Reyes et al. (2009) determined that several wild grapevines produced higher amounts of phenolic compounds, e.g., the stilbene resveratrol, in leaves than that produced by cultivated grapevines. This fact is partially consistent with the present research, as only the fruits of plant 129 had a higher phenolic compound content than the Portuguese ‘Touriga nacional’ (6.9 mg ETA g−1 FW); none of the V. cinerea fruit was superior to the phenolic content of the peel of ‘Reed seedless’ fruits (9.5 mg ETA g−1 FW), but all V. cinerea fruits had a higher phenolic content than the flesh of the ‘Reed seedless’ berries (0.2 mg ETA g−1 FW).

The TSS values ranged from 14.2 to 20.4°B; moreover, this characteristic, which is related to the sucrose and organic acid content, may have been influenced by the environmental conditions of each year of sampling (Santesteban and Royo 2006). Higher values were obtained in 2010, whereas for 2009, a lower value was observed. The TSS values presented in this work are lower than those reported by Vacca et al. (2009), who reported values of approximately 18 to 26°B in Sardinian red grape cultivars; in ‘Kreaca’ grapes, over a 3 year study, the TSS content was between 23 and 17°B. Similar to the present work, the values among those 3 years were significantly different (Rakonjac et al. 2010). According to Shiraishi et al. (2010), the TSS contents of the fruits of plants 148, 176 and 184 were low. However, those plants fruiting berries with a TSS content greater than 19°B, i.e., plants 169 and 183, should be studied further for their potential use in the production of foods derive from wild grapes.

Seeds

V. cinerea berries presented two or three seeds per fruit, but those of plant 169 contained nearly four per fruit (Table 5). The IPGRI descriptor (IPGRI et al. 1997) classified most of the present plants as having a medium amount of seeds (two to three seeds); plant 169 was classified as having many seeds, like some exemplars of V. amurensis Rupr. and V. arizonica and some hybrids of V. labrusca L., V. riparia and V. bourgaeana Planch., as well as a few cultivars and hybrids of V. vinifera (Shiraishi and Shiraishi 1997). Moore (1991) reported three or four seeds per fruit for V. aestivalis (Michx.), V. rotundifolia Michx., V. cinerea, V. vulpina L., V. palmata Vahl, V. monticola Buckley, V. acerifolia Raf., V. riparia and V. rupestris. Notably, the low berry weight, scant presence of flesh and medium and high presence of seeds suggests little potential for berries of V. cinerea as table grapes; thus, alternative uses must be tested or improved to generate interest among the local people in maintaining this plant genetic resource.
Table 5

Characteristics of seeds of Vitis cinerea growing in the southern region of the State of Mexico

Grapevine

Number per

10 fruits

Length

(cm)

Width

(cm)

Weight in

10 fruits (g)

Weight of 100

(g)

129

23d

0.56ce

0.50a

1.0a

4.2a

148

21de

0.52e

0.45bc

0.6b

2.8d

169

39a

0.54de

0.37d

0.9a

2.2e

176

29bc

0.66a

0.46ab

1.1a

3.6bc

180

18e

0.56cd

0.44bc

0.6b

3.2cd

183

30b

0.62ab

0.42cd

1.1a

3.3cd

184

29bc

0.60bc

0.42c

1.1a

3.8ac

188

24cd

0.56cd

0.47ab

1.1a

4.1ab

Year

2008

25b

0.54c

0.41c

0.8b

3.3a

2009

29a

0.58b

0.44b

1.0a

3.5a

2010

26ab

0.61a

0.47a

0.9b

3.4a

G × Y

***

***

***

***

***

For the grapevines, the data are the average of 3 years with five replicates per year. For years, the data are the average of eight plants with five replicates per plant. The values indicated with the same letter are not different by the Tukey test at 0.05. *** Significant at 0.001

The weight of 100 seeds was a factor that exhibited non-statistically significant changes over the 3 year period (Table 5); thus, similar to bunch width, this component seems to be highly controlled by genetics. There were significant differences in the seed length, width and seed weight; but for the former factor, only two groups were formed. This factor must be tested more extensively because the changes each year were on the order of only 0.1 g in each of the 10 fruits.

Biplot

The principal components (PC) 1 (34.4 %) and 2 (29.8 %) explained 64.3 % of the variation among V. cinerea berries (Fig. 2). Similar values have been obtained in Argentina and Brazil in the characterization of wine (54.8 %) and table grapes (62 %), respectively (González et al. 2009; Leão et al. 2011). In the present research, PC1 was related to bunch length, fruit weight per bunch, weight of 10 fruits and fruit width, whereas PC2 was related to fruits per bunch, number of seeds in 10 fruits, weight of 100 seeds and seed diameter. Similar results for PC1 were obtained in Brazil; in that study, PC1 was related to bunch weight, berry weight and diameter (Leão et al. 2011).
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs10722-012-9908-5/MediaObjects/10722_2012_9908_Fig2_HTML.gif
Fig. 2

Biplot of wild grapevines and some of their morphological and biochemical characteristics in the principal components 1 and 2. Genotype × variable analysis

The eight plants of V. cinerea were distributed within the four quadrants of the biplot. The higher variability in PC1 was associated with plants 129 and 148 in a positive and negative way, respectively. However, PC2 was related to plant 169. In Fig. 2, plants 169 and 183 were highly correlated with fruits per bunch, seeds per 10 fruits, weight of fruits per bunch, TSS, total sugars, bunch width and length. The three plants in the fourth quadrant, i.e., 176, 188 and 129, were significantly correlated with phenols, reducing sugars, seed weight in 10 fruits, seed length, weight of 10 fruits, weight of 100 seeds, and fruit and seed width. Additionally, plants 148, 180 and 184 were grouped according to peduncle length.

Correlations

The weight of 10 fruits, that is the fruit weight, was correlated with the fruit width (0.912; 0.01) and the weight of 100 seeds (0.748; 0.05). That fruit width was associated with the fruit weight and was related to the weight of the seeds present in 10 fruits (0.749; 0.05) and the weight of 100 seeds (0.717; 0.05). These data may be explained by the scant presence of flesh in these fruits, and thus the seed is the heaviest fruit organ.

Conclusions

In a three-year study, among eight plants of Vitis cinerea growing in the mountains of the southern region of the State of Mexico, variability was identified in the bunch length and width; peduncle length; fruits per bunch; weight of fruits per bunch; weight of 10 fruits; fruit width; seeds per 10 fruits; seed length and width; weight of the seeds of 10 fruits; weight of 100 seeds; and the contents of fruit phenolics, reducing sugars, total sugars and total soluble solids. With the exception of bunch width and the weight of 100 seeds, differences in all parameters were observed among the three harvesting seasons; those factors that did not vary during the three-year period may represent constant values for the species. A principal component analysis formed three groups, suggesting variability among the sampled grapes and thereby increasing interest in studying this plant genetic resource for its conservation and use in Vitis breeding programs.

Acknowledgments

This project was financially supported by grants from the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM), the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture (SAGARPA) through the Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SINAREFI), and the Mexican Ministry of Education (SEP/PROMEP) for CA UAEM-127. S. Aguirre-Ortega was a fellow of the Mexican Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT).

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012