Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 60, Issue 2, pp 763–776

Analysis of average standardized SSR allele size supports domestication of soybean along the Yellow River

Authors

  • Ying-hui Li
    • The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • Chen Zhang
    • The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • Marinus J. M. Smulders
    • Plant Research International, Wageningen UR Plant Breeding
  • Wei Li
    • The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
  • Yan-song Ma
    • Soybean Research InstituteHeilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences (HAAS)
  • Qu Xu
    • High School Attached to Capital Normal University
  • Ru-zhen Chang
    • The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
    • The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement (NFCRI), Institute of Crop ScienceChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Research Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10722-012-9873-z

Cite this article as:
Li, Y., Zhang, C., Smulders, M.J.M. et al. Genet Resour Crop Evol (2013) 60: 763. doi:10.1007/s10722-012-9873-z

Abstract

Soybean (Glycine max) was domesticated in China from its wild progenitor G. soja. The geographic region of domestication is, however, not exactly known. Here we employed the directional evolution of SSR (microsatellite) repeats (which mutate preferentially into longer alleles) to analyze the domestication process and to infer the most ancestral soybean landraces. In this study, the average standardized SSR allele sizes across 42 SSR loci in 62 accessions of G. soja were determined, and compared with those in 1504 landraces of G. max, collected from all over China and representing the diversity in the gene bank. The standardized SSR allele size in the landraces (0.009) was significantly (P = 8.63 × 10−58) larger than those in G. soja (−0.406). Pairwise comparisons between inferred clusters and sub-clusters of Chinese landraces indicated that the average standardized SSR allele size also increased with the further differentiation of landraces populations. Spring-sowed types had the shortest size, followed by summer-sown types, while the sub-cluster of autumn-sown type had the largest length. The spring-sowed landraces located near the middle region along the Yellow River had the smallest allele sizes, indicating that this is the most ancestral population of cultivated soybean. We concluded that soybean was most likely domesticated in the middle region of the Yellow River in central China, initially as a spring-sown type.

Keywords

Directional evolution Domestication Glycine max Glycine soja Landrace SSR

Abbreviations

NESpM

NorthEast region, Spring-sowing type, Model-based

NSpM

North region, Spring-sowing type, Model-based

HSuM

Huanghuai (Yellow river) region, Summer-sowing type, Model-based

SSpM

South region, Spring-sowing type, Model-based

SSpSM

South region, Spring-sowing type, Southwest, Model-based

SSuM

South region, Summer-sowing type, Model-based

SSuSM

South region, Summer-sowing type, Southwest, Model-based

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012