Research Article

Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 201-209

First online:

Analysis of genetic diversity among European and Asian fig varieties (Ficus carica L.) using ISSR, RAPD, and SSR markers

  • Hidetoshi IkegamiAffiliated withBiotechnology Division, Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center Email author 
  • , Hitoshi NogataAffiliated withFukuoka Agricultural Research Center Buzen Branch
  • , Keita HirashimaAffiliated withBiotechnology Division, Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center
  • , Mitsuo AwamuraAffiliated withFukuoka Agricultural Research Center Buzen Branch
  • , Takao NakaharaAffiliated withBiotechnology Division, Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center

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Nineteen fig varieties and lines from Europe and Asia have been fingerprinted by ISSR, RAPD, and SSR markers, respectively, using 13, 19, and 13 primer combinations. All primers produced 258 loci, with the highest number of loci (119) generated by RAPD (R p: 48.42). Clustering analysis was applied to the three marker datasets to elucidate the genetic structure and relationships among these varieties. Mean genetic similarities were 0.787, 0.717, and 0.749, respectively, as determined using ISSR, RAPD, and SSR. Each marker system produced incompletely separated clusters, although a weak binding group based on race type appeared in the combined dataset. Comparisons of coefficients revealed no correlation between different similarity matrices; congruence was observed between similarity matrices and co-phenetic matrices in all markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that most of the total polymorphism was attributable to within-group variance (ISSRs + RAPDs, 97.41%; SSRs, 90.18%). These results suggest that the genetic diversity of this fig population is low and that multiple marker utilization is critical to estimate the relatedness of figs at the variety level. Additionally, it was presumed that ‘Houraihi’, the oldest variety in Japan, was disseminated independently of other foreign varieties in the 17th century or before then.


Ficus carica L. Genetic diversity ISSR RAPD SSR Varietal relation