Matrix metalloproteinase-2: Mechanism and regulation of NF-κB-mediated activation and its role in cell motility and ECM-invasion
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- Philip, S., Bulbule, A. & Kundu, G.C. Glycoconj J (2004) 21: 429. doi:10.1007/s10719-004-5533-7
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Matrix metalloproteinases belong to a family of enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) components and play an important role in tissue repair, tumor invasion, and metastasis. ECM proteins, cytokines, and certain other factors regulate MMP activity. OPN, an ECM protein, has been found to be overexpressed in various cancers, and it has been shown to correlate with the metastatic potential. Although such reports indicate that OPN plays an important role in the ability of tumor cells to survive and metastasize to secondary sites, the mechanism by which OPN regulates these processes is yet to be understood. In this study we report that native purified human OPN can induce cell migration and ECM invasion. Increased invasiveness and migration correlates with enhanced expression and activation of MMP-2. Our study provides evidence showing that OPN increases gelatinolytic activity by inducing MT1-MMP expression via activation of the NF-κB pathway. Suppression of MMP-2 by ASMMP-2 reduces the OPN-induced cell migration and ECM invasion. Curcumin blocks OPN-induced MT1-MMP expression and pro-MMP-2 activation. Curcumin, a known anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic compound, suppresses OPN-induced cell migration, invasion and induces apoptotic morphology in OPN-treated cells. The mechanism by which curcumin suppresses the OPN-induced effects has also been delineated. Curcumin inhibits MT1-MMP gene expression by blocking signals leading to IKK activation. This in turn inhibits IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Published in 2004.