Remote Sensing and GIS Tool to Detect Hydrocarbon Prospect in Nagapattinam Sub Basin, India
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- Prabaharan, S., Ramalingam, M., Subramani, T. et al. Geotech Geol Eng (2013) 31: 267. doi:10.1007/s10706-012-9589-z
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Cauvery Basin is one of the pericratonic rift basins located in the east coast of Tamilnadu. The rifting has resulted in a series of horsts and grabens. The present study uses a new technique which was devised with the help of GIS by analyzing the surface lineaments and subsurface linearities effectively. In this present study, a satellite image based analysis was conducted for extracting surface lineaments, and for the subsurface linearities, the basement linearities were extracted from seismic, magnetic, and gravity data. An orientation analysis of these surface and subsurface linear features was performed to detect the basic structural grains of the study area. The correlation between these structural grains and subsurface oil and gas traps was performed to understand the connectivity to the reservoirs. This article discusses in detail about the same and the importance of using surface and subsurface lineament analyses for delineating hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Nagapattinam Sub-Basin of Cauvery Basin.
KeywordsLineamentsStructural grainsIRS P-6LISS IIICauvery Basin
Cauvery Basin, formed during late Jurassic period by sagging of a part of the Indian shield mainly along the dominant NE–SW eastern ghats trend, is located in the southern part of east coast of India between the northerly plunging Sri Lanka basement massif and the peninsular craton (Subramanyam et al. 1995). It occupies an area of 25,000 sq km on land basin and 35,000 sq km offshore (Kumar 1983). Subsurface studies over onshore parts of the basin have revealed the basinal trend and the main NE–SW structural features, viz., Pondicherry, Tranquebar, and Nagapattinam depressions, separated by Kumbakonam–Shiyali ridge, Karaikal high and Vedaranyam high (Sastri et al. 1973; Kumar 1983; Venkatarengan 1987). Geomorphological and morphotectonic studies have been carried out by many earlier researchers based on air photos and landsat images (Varadarajan 1969; Varadarajan and Balakrishnan 1982; Mahajan et al. 1984; Mitra and Agarwal 1991). The surface linear features have been used to search for additional reserves in mature oil gas fields (Herman et al. 1986; Guo and Carroll 1995).
2 Study Area
3 Geological History and General Stratigraphy
The Cenomanian transgression has resulted in the deposition of finer clastics (Sathapadi Shale) followed by a fall in sea level producing in sandy sediments (Bhuvanagiri Formation) during Turonian, and the top of Turonian is an Unconformity.
Coniacian to Maastrichian is mostly finer clastics shaly with frequent input of sand (Nannilam reservoirs are sandwiched in shale. Again, the top of Maastritchian is an unconformity surface. Late Paleocene, Early Eocene period witnessed a major transgression in the Tri-junction area as witnessed by brown colored shales with abundant planktons such as globigerina and Orbulina (Rajagopalan 1965 Govindan and Chidambaram 2000. During Oligocene, shelf edge delta front sands were cyphoned into the slope, and ultimately, these high-density currents deposited their load and got frozen as sand pods one over the other at repeated intervals. Mio-Pliocene witnessed the development of the present delta with upland area occupied by laterite and lateritic soil. In the subsurface, Mio/Pliocene is dominated by deltaic sand, minor Kaolinitic clay, and lignite belt from Neyveli–Jayankondam–Mayavaram and end up at Mannargudi which is covered up by the Holocene Delta.
5.2 Subsurface Fault, Gravity, and Magnetic Lineaments
Avasthi et al. (1977) and Sahu (2007) have analyzed the gravity, the magnetic data, and the basement depth. The above published gravity, magnetic, and basement depth maps were georeferenced and rectified using ArcGIS 9.3 and created a database. The gravity and magnetic lineaments have been extracted from visualized breaks of converted 3D maps of both gravity and magnetic contour maps, and the same were digitized and GIS layers have been generated. Another GIS layer on basement faults system was prepared as a result of seismic interpretations of top basement horizon of the area. The basement linearities and other identified linearities were correlated with the surface lineaments interpreted from IRS P-6 LISS III image, SRTM, and Landsat image.
6 Results and Discussions
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