The Effect of Future Climate Perturbations on N 2O Emissions from a Fertilized Humid Grassland Article Received: 25 January 2005 Accepted: 02 May 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Hsieh, CI., Leahy, P., Kiely, G. et al. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst (2005) 73: 15. doi:10.1007/s10705-005-7129-4 Abstract
2O emissions from a fertilized humid grassland near Cork, Ireland were continuously measured during 2003 using an eddy covariance system. For most of the year emissions were close to zero and 60% of the emissions occurred in eight major events of 2–20 days’ duration. Two hundred and seven kg ha −1 of synthetic N and 130 kg ha −1 organic N were applied over the year and the total measured annual N 2O emission was 11.6 kg N ha −1. The flux data were used to test the prediction of N 2O emissions by the DNDC (DeNitrification – DeComposition) model. The model predicted total emissions of 15.4 kg N ha −1, 32 % more than the observed emissions. On this basis the model was further used to simulate (a) background (non-anthropogenic) N 2O emissions and (b) the effect on N 2O emissions of future climate perturbations based on the Hadley Center model output of the IS92a scenario for Ireland. DNDC predicts 1.7 kg N ha −1 year −1 of background N 2O emissions, accounting for 15% of the observed emissions. Climate shifts will increase total annual modeled N 2O emissions from 15.4 kg N ha −1 to 22.4 kg N ha −1 if current levels of N applications are maintained, or to 21.2 kg N ha −1 if synthetic N applications are reduced to 170 kg N ha −1 to comply with recent EU water quality legislation. Thus the projected increase in N 2O emissions due to climate change is far larger than the decrease expected from reduced fertilizer applications. Keywords Climate change DNDC model Emission factor Nitrogen fertilizer Nitrous oxide References
Bouwman, A.F., van der Hoek, K.W., Olivier, J.G.J. 1995 Uncertainties in the global source distribution of nitrous oxide J. Geophys. Res. 100 2785 2800 CrossRef Google Scholar
CEC 1991Council Directive 91/676/EEC concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. Council Directive Council of the European Communities Brussels, Belgium Google Scholar
Dobbie, K.E., McTaggart, I.P., Smith, K.A. 1999 Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors J. Geophys. Res. 104 26891 26899 CrossRef Google Scholar
Gordon, C., Cooper, C., Senior, C.A., Banks, H.T., Gregory, J.M., Johns, T.C., Mitchell, J.F.B., Wood, R.A. 2000 Simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centeer coupled model without flux adjustments Clim. Dynam. 16 147 168 Google Scholar
Holden, N.M., Brereton, A.J. 2002 An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on grass yield in Ireland over the next 100 years Irish J. Ag. Food Res. 41 213 226 Google Scholar
Hsieh C.-I., Kiely G., Birkby A. and Katul G. 2005. Photosynthetic responses of a humid grassland ecosystem to future climate perturbations. Adv. Wat. Res. doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.02.007 (in press).
IPCC 2001Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Report Cambridge University Press New York, NY, USA Google Scholar
Jordan, C. 1997 Mapping of Rainfall Chemistry In Ireland 1972–1994 Biol. Env.: Proc. Royal Irish Acad. 97B 53 73 Google Scholar
Leahy P., Kiely G. and Scanlon T.M. 2004. Managed grasslands: a greenhouse gas sink or source? Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(L20507). doi:10.1029/2004GL021161. vol. 31, art. L20507.
Leggett, J., Pepper, W.J., Swart, R.J. 1992 Emissions scenarios for the IPCC: an update Houghton, J.T. Callander, B.A. Varney, S.K. eds. Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment Cambridge University Press CambridgeUK 69 95 Google Scholar
Li, C.S. 2000 Modeling trace gas emissions from agricultural ecosystems Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 58 259 276 CrossRef Google Scholar
Li, C.S., Frolking, S., Frolking, T.A. 1992a A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 1. Model structure and sensitivity J. Geophys. Res. 97 9759 9776 Google Scholar
Li, C.S., Frolking, S., Frolking, T.A. 1992b A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 2. Model applications J. Geophys. Res. 97 9777 9783 Google Scholar
Maag M. and Vinther F.P. 1996. Nitrons oxide emission by nitrification and denitrification in different soil types and at different soil moisture contents and temperatures. Appl. Soil Ecol. 4: 5–14.
Pope, V.D., Gallani, M.L., Rowntree, P.R., Stratton, R.A. 2000 The impact of new physical parameterizations in the Hadley Centre climate model – HadAM3 Clim. Dynam. 16 123 146 Google Scholar
Prather, M.J. 1998 Time scales in atmospheric chemistry: coupled perturbations to N 2O, NO yand O 3 Science 279 1339 1341 CrossRef Google Scholar
Prinn, R.G., Weiss, R.F., Fraser, P.J., Simmonds, P.G., Cunnold, D.M., Alyea, F.N., O’Doherty, S., Salameh, P., Miller, B.R., Huang, J., Wang, R.H.J., Hartley, D.E., Harth, C., Steele, L.P., Sturrock, G., Midgley, P.M., McCulloch, A. 2000 A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE J. Geophys. Res. 105 17751 17792 CrossRef Google Scholar
Scanlon, T., Kiely, G. 2003 Ecosystem-scale measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes for an intensely grazedfertilized grassland Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 1852 1856 CrossRef Google Scholar
Smith, K.A., Ball, T., Conen, F., Dobbie, K.E., Massheder, J., Rey, A. 2003 Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes Eur. J. Soil Sci. 54 779 791 Google Scholar
UNFCCC. 2004. UNFCCC Greenhouse Gases Inventory Data Base, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Web Page. http://ghg.unfccc.int/.
Whitehead, D.C. 1995Grassland Nitrogen. 1st edn CAB International, Wallingford Oxon, UK Google Scholar