Foundations of Physics

, Volume 43, Issue 6, pp 733–746

A Symmetrical Interpretation of the Klein-Gordon Equation


DOI: 10.1007/s10701-013-9713-9

Cite this article as:
Heaney, M.B. Found Phys (2013) 43: 733. doi:10.1007/s10701-013-9713-9


This paper presents a new Symmetrical Interpretation (SI) of relativistic quantum mechanics which postulates: quantum mechanics is a theory about complete experiments, not particles; a complete experiment is maximally described by a complex transition amplitude density; and this transition amplitude density never collapses. This SI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein’s bubble experiment. This SI makes several experimentally testable predictions that differ from the CI, solves one part of the measurement problem, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.


Foundations of quantum mechanicsFoundations of relativistic quantum mechanicsKlein-Gordon equationQuantum interpretationSymmetrical interpretationTime-symmetric interpretationCopenhagen interpretationMeasurement problemQuantum mechanics axiomsQuantum mechanics postulatesProblem of timeZitterbewegungBlock universeEinsteins bubbleRetrocausalityCausalityDelayed choiceInteraction freeRenningerTeleportationRole of observerAdvanced wavefunctionTwo-state vector formalismTSVFWavefunction collapseWave function collapse

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Palo AltoUSA