Foundations of Physics

, Volume 36, Issue 10, pp 1441–1473

The Free Will Theorem


  • John Conway
    • Department of MathematicsPrinceton University
    • Department of MathematicsPrinceton University

DOI: 10.1007/s10701-006-9068-6

Cite this article as:
Conway, J. & Kochen, S. Found Phys (2006) 36: 1441. doi:10.1007/s10701-006-9068-6


On the basis of three physical axioms, we prove that if the choice of a particular type of spin 1 experiment is not a function of the information accessible to the experimenters, then its outcome is equally not a function of the information accessible to the particles. We show that this result is robust, and deduce that neither hidden variable theories nor mechanisms of the GRW type for wave function collapse can be made relativistic and causal. We also establish the consistency of our axioms and discuss the philosophical implications.


EPR entanglementK–S paradoxindeterminacy

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006