Foundations of Science

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 781-790

First online:

The Implications of Interactions for Science and Philosophy

  • Carlos GershensonAffiliated withComputer Sciences Department, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Email author 

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Reductionism has dominated science and philosophy for centuries. Complexity has recently shown that interactions—which reductionism neglects—are relevant for understanding phenomena. When interactions are considered, reductionism becomes limited in several aspects. In this paper, I argue that interactions imply nonreductionism, non-materialism, non-predictability, non-Platonism, and non-Nihilism. As alternatives to each of these, holism, informism, adaptation, contextuality, and meaningfulness are put forward, respectively. A worldview that includes interactions not only describes better our world, but can help to solve many open scientific, philosophical, and social problems caused by implications of reductionism.


Complexity Interactions Reductionism Worldview