Foundations of Science

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 781–790

The Implications of Interactions for Science and Philosophy


    • Computer Sciences DepartmentInstituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

DOI: 10.1007/s10699-012-9305-8

Cite this article as:
Gershenson, C. Found Sci (2013) 18: 781. doi:10.1007/s10699-012-9305-8


Reductionism has dominated science and philosophy for centuries. Complexity has recently shown that interactions—which reductionism neglects—are relevant for understanding phenomena. When interactions are considered, reductionism becomes limited in several aspects. In this paper, I argue that interactions imply nonreductionism, non-materialism, non-predictability, non-Platonism, and non-Nihilism. As alternatives to each of these, holism, informism, adaptation, contextuality, and meaningfulness are put forward, respectively. A worldview that includes interactions not only describes better our world, but can help to solve many open scientific, philosophical, and social problems caused by implications of reductionism.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012