Foundations of Chemistry

, 7:203

A Revised Periodic Table: With the Lanthanides Repositioned

Authors

    • School of Pure and Applied ChemistryUniversity of Natal
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10698-004-5959-9

Cite this article as:
Laing, M. Found Chem (2005) 7: 203. doi:10.1007/s10698-004-5959-9

Abstract

The lanthanide elements from lanthanum to lutetium inclusive are incorporated into the body of the periodic table. They are subdivided into three sub-groups according to their important oxidation states: La to Sm, Eu to Tm, Yb and Lu, so that Eu and Yb fall directly below Ba; La, Gd, Lu form a column directly below Y; Ce and Tb fall in a vertical line between Zr and Hf. Pm falls below Tc; both are radioactive, and not naturally occurring. The elements with easily attained 2+ and 4+ oxidation states are grouped and clearly differentiated. Gadolinium has an important position as the centre of four triads in the block of elements that surround it– La, Gd, Lu; Ba, Gd, Hf; Eu, Gd, Tb; Yb, Gd, Ce. This new arrangement has the advantages of compactness, simplicity and clarity – there are no tie lines; and important oxidation states of these metals are emphasized. The actinides are also accommodated within this system, and element 114 falls naturally below lead in Group 14.

Copyright information

© Springer 2005