Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 921–971

Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses

  • Bidhan C. De
  • D. K. Meena
  • B. K. Behera
  • Pronob Das
  • P. K. Das Mohapatra
  • A. P. Sharma
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10695-013-9897-0

Cite this article as:
C. De, B., Meena, D.K., Behera, B.K. et al. Fish Physiol Biochem (2014) 40: 921. doi:10.1007/s10695-013-9897-0

Abstract

Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view.

Keywords

AquacultureEcofriendlyImmunomodulationMicrobiotaProbiotics

Abbreviations

ACP

Alternative complement pathway

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

ASS

Acid sulfate soils

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

BFM

Bifidobacteria-fermented milk

BLIS

Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances

CANON

Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite

CER

Conversion efficiency ratio

CF

Condition factor

DGGE

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DO

Dissolved oxygen

FCR

Feed conversion ratio

FER

Feed efficiency ratio

FISH

Fluorescent in situ hybridization

FOS

Fructo-oligosaccharide

GIT

Gastrointestinal track

HUFA

Highly unsaturated fatty acid

LAB

Lactic acid bacteria

LCA

Life assessment cycle methodology

LDL-C

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol

LPO

Lipid peroxidation

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MOS

Mannose oligosaccharide

ODC

Ornithine-decarboxylase

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PER

Protein efficiency ratio

PET

Probiotic encapsulation technology

PHB

Poly-hydroxyl butyrate acid

QS

Quorum sensing

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RPS

Relative percent survival

SGR

Specific growth rate

SOD

Sodium oxidase dismutase

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TAN

Total ammonia nitrogen

TG

Triglycerides

WGR

Weight gain rate

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bidhan C. De
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. K. Meena
    • 1
  • B. K. Behera
    • 1
  • Pronob Das
    • 1
    • 3
  • P. K. Das Mohapatra
    • 2
  • A. P. Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Inland Fisheries Research InstituteBarrackpore, KolkataIndia
  2. 2.Vidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia
  3. 3.Central Inland Fisheries Research Centre, Regional CentreGuwahatiIndia