, Volume 152, Issue 2, pp 259-273
Date: 11 Aug 2006

SSR analysis of chromosome 8 regions associated with aroma and cooked kernel elongation in Basmati rice

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Aroma and cooked kernel elongation (CKE) are the two most important quality traits, which differentiate the highly valued Basmati rice from other rice types. Previous studies on genetic analysis have shown that genes/QTLs for these two traits are linked and present on chromosome number 8. We have evaluated the genetic diversity in 33 rice genotypes representative of the traditional Basmati (TB), cross-bred Basmati derived from indica × Basmati rice crosses and non-Basmati (indica and japonica) rice varieties for chromosome number 8 using 26 SSR markers including a specific marker (SCU-SSR1) for RG28 locus; the results have been compared with whole genome based SSR allelic data. The 26 SSR markers (24 polymorphic and 2 monomorphic) amplified a total of 106 alleles; 21 of these alleles were detected to be unique, present in only one genotype. The number and size of the alleles, and polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged between 1–8, 87–312 and 0–0.736 bp, respectively. SCU-SSR1 marker amplified a total of three alleles (128, 129 and 130 bp). All the TB varieties except Basmati 217 (129 bp) and 7/13 cross-bred Basmati varieties had the 130 bp allele. Alleles of 129 and 128 bp were present in majority of the indica and japonica varieties, respectively. The average pair-wise Jaccard similarity coefficients for TB, indica and japonica varieties were 0.512, 0.483 and 0.251, respectively. Average similarity coefficient between TB and japonica was higher (0.236) compared to that between TB and indicas (0.150). Genetic relationships as determined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, NTSYS-pc), PowerMarker tree, and Structure analyses, clearly showed high-level differentiation between TB and indica rice varieties, which formed two distinct clusters. The cross-bred Basmati and japonica rice genotypes were placed between these two clusters. Basmati 217 and Ranbir Basmati were quite divergent from rest of the TB varieties. Some of cross-bred Basmati varieties including Super, CSR30 and kernel were closer to TB. Indica rice varieties, CSR10 (salt tolerant variety) and Pokkali (salt tolerant landrace) formed a separate distinct cluster. The Pritchard structure analysis divided the rice genotypes in four major sub-populations of TB, cross-bred Basmati, indica and japonica (including Ranbir Basmati and Basmati 217) rice varieties. Chromosome 8 data-set showed a positive correlation (Mantel test, r = 0.739) with the allelic data-set for 30 SSR markers well-distributed on 12 rice chromosomes indicating a higher level of similarity between the two. The study demonstrates the distinctness of TB from other rice types (indica and japonica) and also provides several novel markers for differentiation between TB rice supplies from cheaper cross-bred Basmati and long-grain non-Basmati varieties at commercial level.