Original Paper

Ethics and Information Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 223-234

First online:

Implications and consequences of robots with biological brains

  • Kevin WarwickAffiliated withSchool of Systems Engineering, University of Reading Email author 

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In this paper a look is taken at the relatively new area of culturing neural tissue and embodying it in a mobile robot platform—essentially giving a robot a biological brain. Present technology and practice is discussed. New trends and the potential effects of and in this area are also indicated. This has a potential major impact with regard to society and ethical issues and hence some initial observations are made. Some initial issues are also considered with regard to the potential consciousness of such a brain.


Robot ethics Robot rights Human ethics Consciousness Robotics Autonomy