The Epistemic Benefit of Transient Diversity
- Kevin J. S. Zollman
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
There is growing interest in understanding and eliciting division of labor within groups of scientists. This paper illustrates the need for this division of labor through a historical example, and a formal model is presented to better analyze situations of this type. Analysis of this model reveals that a division of labor can be maintained in two different ways: by limiting information or by endowing the scientists with extreme beliefs. If both features are present however, cognitive diversity is maintained indefinitely, and as a result agents fail to converge to the truth. Beyond the mechanisms for creating diversity suggested here, this shows that the real epistemic goal is not diversity but transient diversity.
- Alexander, J. M. (2007). The structural evolution of morality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Bala, V., & Goyal, S. (1998). Learning from neighbours. Review of Economic Studies, 65, 565–621. CrossRef
- Berry, D. A., & Fristedt, B. (1985). Bandit problems: Sequential allocation of experiments. London: Chapman and Hall.
- Buckley, M. J., & O’Morain, C. A. (1998). Helicobacter biology—discovery. British Medical Bulletin, 54(1), 7–16.
- DeGroot, M. H. (1970). Optimal statistical decisions. NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Feyerabend, P. (1965). Problems of empiricism. In R. G. Colodny (Ed.), Beyond the edge of certainty. Essays in contemporary science and philosophy (pp. 145–260). Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Feyerabend, P. (1968). How to be a good empiricist: A plea for tolerance in matters epistemological. In P. Nidditch (Ed.), The philosophy of science. Oxford readings in philosophy (pp. 12–39). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Figura, N., & Bianciardi, L. (2002). Helicobacters were discovered in Italy in 1892: An episode in the scientific life of an eclectic pathologist, Giulio Bizzozero. In B. Marshall (Ed.), Helicobacter pioneers: Firsthand accounts from the scientists who discovered Helicobacters, (pp. 1–13). Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Science Asia.
- Fukuda, Y., Shimoyama, T., Shimoyama, T., & Marshall, B. J. (2002). Kasai, Kobayashi and Koch’s postulates in the history of Helicobacter pylori. In B. Marshall (Ed.), Helicobacter pioneers, (pp. 15–24). Oxford: Blackwell publishers.
- Goyal, S. (2005). Learning in networks: A survey. In G. Demange & M. Wooders (Eds.), Group formation in economics: networks, clubs, and coalitions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Howson, C., & Urbach, P. (1996). Scientific reasoning: The Bayesian approach (2nd ed). Chicago: Open Court.
- Hull, D. (1988). Science as a process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Kidd, M., & Modlin, I. M. (1998). A century of Helicobacter pylori. Digestion, 59, 1–15. CrossRef
- Kitcher, P. (1990). The division of cognitive labor. The Journal of Philosophy, 87(1), 5–22. CrossRef
- Kitcher, P. (1993). The advancement of science. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Kitcher, P. (2002). Social psychology and the theory of science. In S. Stich & M. Siegal (Eds.), The cognitive basis of science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Kuhn, T. S. (1977). Collective belief and scientific change. In The essential tension (pp. 320–339). University of Chicago Press.
- Laudan, L. (1984). Science and values. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Laudan, L. (1996). Beyond positivism and relativism: Theory, method, and evidence. Boulder: Westview Press.
- Marshall, B. (2002). The discovery that Helicobacter pylori, a spiral bacterium, caused peptic ulcer disease. In B. Marshall (Ed.), Helicobacter pioneers: First hand accounts from the scientists who discovered Helicobacters (pp. 165–202). Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Science Asia.
- Palmer, E. (1954). Investigations of the gastric mucosa spirochetes of the human. Gastroenterology, 27, 218–220.
- Peterson, W. L., Harford, W., & Marshall, B. J. (2002). The Dallas experience with acute Helicobacter pylori infection. In B. Marshall (Ed.), Helicobacter pioneers: Firsthand accounts from the scientists who discovered Helicobacters (pp. 143–150). Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Science Asia.
- Popper, K. (1975). The rationality of scientific revolutions. In R. Harre (Ed.), Problems of scientific revolution: Progress and obstacles to progress. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Rigas, B., & Papavassiliou, E. D. (2002). John Lykoudis: The general practitioner in Greece who in 1958 discovered the etiology of, and a treatment for, peptic ulcer disease. In B. Marshall (Ed.), Helicobacter pioneers (pp. 75–87). Oxford: Blackwell publishers.
- Robbins, H. (1952). Some aspects of the sequential design of experiments. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 58, 527–535. CrossRef
- Sarkar, H. (1983). A theory of method. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Solomon, M. (1992). Scientific rationality and human reasoning. Philosophy of Science, 59(3), 439–455. CrossRef
- Solomon, M. (2001). Social empiricism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Strevens, M. (2003a). Further properties of the priority rule. Manuscript.
- Strevens, M. (2003b). The role of the priority rule in science. Journal of Philosophy, 100(2), 55–79.
- Thagard, P. (1993). Societies of minds: Science as distributed computing. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 24, 49–67. CrossRef
- Thagard, P. (1998a). Ulcers and bacteria I: Discovery and acceptance. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part C: Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, 29(1), 107–136.
- Thagard, P. (1998b). Ulcers and bacteria II: Instruments, experiments and social interactions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 29, 317–342.
- Unge, P. (2002). Helicobacter pylori treatment in the past and in the 21st century. In B. Marshall (Ed.), Helicobacter pioneers: Firsthand accounts from the scientists who discovered Helicobacters (pp. 203–213). Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Science Asia.
- Warren, J. R., & Marshall B. J. (1984). Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet, 1(8390), 1311–1315.
- Weisberg, M., & Muldoon R. (2008). Epistemic landscapes and the division of cognitive labor. Philosophy of Science, forthcoming.
- Zollman, K. J. (2007). The communication structure of epistemic communities. Philosophy of Science, 74(5), 574–587. CrossRef
- The Epistemic Benefit of Transient Diversity
Volume 72, Issue 1 , pp 17-35
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA