Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.
- Albertini, R., Bird, M., Doerrer, N., Needham, L., Robison, S., Sheldon, L., et al. (2006). The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 1755–1762.
- Alessio, L., Apostoli, P., & Cripps, M. (1995). Influence of individual factors and personal habits on the levels of biological indicators of exposure. Toxicology Letters, 77, 93–103. CrossRef
- Alimonti, A., Bocca, B., Mannella, E., Petrucci, F., Zennaro, F., Cotechini, R., et al. (2005). Assessment of reference values for selected elements in a health urban population. Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 41, 181–187.
- Alonso, E., Cambra, K., & Teresa, M. (2001). Lead and cadmium exposure from contaminated soil among residents of a farm area near an industrial site. Archives of Environmental Health, 56(3), 278–282. CrossRef
- ARPAS, Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente della Sardegna. Piano di disinquinamento per il risanamento del territorio del Sulcis Iglesiente—DPCM 23 aprile 1993. Monitoraggio ambientale anno 2009. p. 1–47.
- Barbosa, F., Jr., Tanus-Santos, J. E., Gerlach, R. F., & Parsone, P. J. (2005). A critical review of biomarkers used for monitoring human exposure to lead: advantages, limitations, and future needs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 1669–1674. CrossRef
- Beneš, B., Spěváčková, V., Šmíd, J., Batáriová, A., Čejchanová, M., & Zítková, L. (2005). Effects of age, BMI, smoking and contraception on levels of Cu, Se and Zn in the blood of the population in the Czech Republic. Central European Journal of Public Health, 13, 202–207.
- Biggeri, A., Lagazio, C., Catelan, D., Pirastu, R., Casson, F., & Terracini, B. (2006). Report on health status of resident in areas with industrial, mining or military sites in Sardinia, Italy. Epidemiologia e Prevenzione, 30(S1), 5–95.
- Bocca, B., Madeddu, R., Asara, Y., Tolu, P., Marchal, J. A., & Forte, G. (2011). Assessment of reference ranges for blood Cu, Mn, Se and Zn in a selected Italian population. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 25, 19–26. CrossRef
- CDC—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (pp. 1–519). Atlanta: CDC.
- Forte, G., Madeddu, R., Tolu, P., Asara, Y., Marchal, J. A., & Bocca, B. (2011). Reference intervals for blood Cd and Pb in the general population of Sardinia (Italy). International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 214, 102–109. CrossRef
- Grandjean, P., Nielsen, G. D., Jorgensen, P. J., & Horder, M. (1991). Reference intervals for trace elements in blood: significance of risk factors. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigation, 52, 321–37. CrossRef
- Haase, H., & Rink, L. (2009). The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging. Immunity and Ageing, 6, 9–25. CrossRef
- Hays, S. M., Nordberg, M., Yager, J. W., & Aylward, L. L. (2008). Biomonitoring equivalents (BEs) dossier for cadmium (Cd) (CAS No. 7440-43-9). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 51, 549–556.
- Heitland, P., & Köster, H. D. (2006). Biomonitoring of 37 trace elements in blood samples from inhabitants on northern Germany by ICP-MS. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 20, 253–262. CrossRef
- Italian Decree no. 334/1999. Decreto Legislativo 17 agosto 1999, n. 334. Attuazione della direttiva 96/82/CE relativa al controllo dei pericoli di incidenti rilevanti connessi con determinate sostanze pericolose. (GU n. 228 del 28-9-1999—Supplemento Ordinario n. 177).
- Kim, S., Kwon, H. J., Cheong, H. K., Choi, K., Jang, J. Y., Jeong, W. C., et al. (2008). Investigation on health effects of an abandoned metal mine. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 23, 452–458. CrossRef
- Lewis, G. P., Coughlin, L., Jusko, W., & Hartz, S. (1972). Contribution of cigarette smoking to cadmium accumulation in man. Lancet, 299, 291–292. CrossRef
- Madeddu, R., Muresu, E., Montella, A., Chessa, G., Cherchi, G. B., Piras, P., et al. (2009). Low cadmium concentration in whole blood from residents of northern Sardinia (Italy) with special reference to smoking habits. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 50, 46–52.
- Martin-Lagos, F., Navarro-Alarcon, M., Terres-Martos, C., Lopez-Garcia de la Serrana, H., Perez-Valero, V., & Lopez-Martinez, M. C. (1998). Zinc and copper concentrations in serum from Spanish women during pregnancy. Biological Trace Element Research, 61, 61–70. CrossRef
- MATT, Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio—APAT, Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici. Censimento dei siti minerari abbandonati. Aprile 2006. p. 1–95.
- Mayan, O., Gomes, M. J., Henriques, A., Silva, S., & Begonha, A. (2006). Health survey among people living near an abandoned mine. A case study: Jales Mine, Portugal. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 123, 31–40. CrossRef
- Passariello, B., Giuliano, V., Quaresima, S., Barbaro, M., Caroli, S., Forte, G., et al. (2002). Evaluation of the environmental contamination at an abandoned mining site. Microchemical Journal, 73, 245–250. CrossRef
- Popovic, M., McNeill, F. E., Chettle, D. R., Webber, C. E., Lee, C. V., & Kaye, W. E. (2005). Impact of occupational exposure on lead levels in women. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 478–484. CrossRef
- Satarug, S., & Moore, M. R. (2004). Adverse health effects of chronic exposure to low level cadmium in foodstuffs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 1099–1103. CrossRef
- Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J. L., Llobet, J. M., & Corbella, J. (1993). Variability of blood lead levels in a urban population in relation to drinking and smoking habits. Science of the Total Environment, 138, 23–29. CrossRef
- Sexton, K., Needham, L., & Pirkle, J. L. (2004). Human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals. American Scientist, 92, 38–45.
- Smolders, R., Schramm, K. W., Stenius, U., Grellier, J., Kahn, A., Trnovec, T., et al. (2009). A review on the practical application of human biomonitoring in integrated environmental health impact assessment. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 12, 107–123. CrossRef
- UNEP (2001). Abandoned mine sites: problems, issues and options. Discussion Paper. UNEP Workshop on Abandoned Mines: Policy Challenge for Decision Makers.
- Velea, T., Gherghe, L., Predica, V., & Krebs, R. (2009). Heavy metal contamination in the vicinity of an industrial area near Bucharest. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 16(Suppl 1), S27–S32. CrossRef
- Weyermann, M., & Brenner, H. (1997). Alcohol consumption and smoking habits as determinant of blood levels in national population sample from Germany. Archives of Environmental Health, 52, 233–239. CrossRef
- WHO. (1995). Environmental Health Criteria 165: Inorganic lead. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- WHO (2000). Air Qualità Guidelines for Europe. Second Edition. WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91. World Health Organization, Copenaghen.
- Zhang, X., Yang, L., Li, Y., Li, H., Wang, W., & Ye, B. (2012). Impact of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment and human health in China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, 2261–73. CrossRef
- Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume 185, Issue 7 , pp 5837-5846
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Abandoned mines
- Cadmium (Cd)
- Chromium (Cr)
- Copper (Cu)
- Industrial plants
- Lead (Pb)
- Manganese (Mn)
- Zinc (Zn)
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Biomedical Sciences-Histology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
- 2. National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Rome, Italy
- 3. Italian National Institute of Health, Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy