Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 7, pp 5497-5514

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland)

  • Barbara WalnaAffiliated withJeziory Ecological Station of Adam Mickiewicz University
  • , Iwona KurzycaAffiliated withDepartment of Water and Soil Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University Email author 
  • , Ewa BednorzAffiliated withDepartment of Climatology, Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University
  • , Leszek KolendowiczAffiliated withDepartment of Climatology, Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University


A 2-year study (2010–2011) of fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in the open area and in throughfall in Wielkopolski National Park (west-central Poland) showed their high concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 2 mg/l under the tree crowns. These high values indicate substantial deposition of up to 52 mg/m2/year. In 2011, over 51 % of open area precipitation was characterized by fluoride concentration higher than 0.10 mg/l, and in throughfall such concentrations were found in more than 86 % of events. In 2010, a strong connection was evident between fluoride and acid-forming ions, and in 2011, a correlation between phosphate and nitrite ions was seen. Analysis of available data on F concentrations in the air did not show an unequivocal effect on F concentrations in precipitation. To find reasons for and source areas of high fluoride pollution, the cases of extreme fluoride concentration in rainwater were related to atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. Weather conditions on days of extreme pollution were determined by movement of weather fronts over western Poland, or by small cyclonic centers with meteorological fronts. Macroscale air advection over the sampling site originated in the western quadrant (NW, W, and SW), particularly in the middle layers of the troposphere (2,500–5,000 m a.s.l.). Such directions indicate western Poland and Germany as possible sources of the pollution. At the same time in the lower troposphere, air inflow was frequently from the north, showing short distance transport from local emitters, and from the agglomeration of Poznań.


Fluoride Wielkopolski National Park Atmospheric circulation Back trajectories