Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 173, Issue 1, pp 397–407

Morphological abnormalities in frogs from a rice-growing region in NSW, Australia, with investigations into pesticide exposure


    • Centre for Ecotoxicology, Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Technology-Sydney
  • Ross V. Hyne
    • Centre for Ecotoxicology, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants SectionDepartment of Environment, Climate Change and Water
  • Scott P. Wilson
    • Centre for Environmental ManagementCentral Queensland University
  • Carolyn G. Palmer
    • Centre for Ecotoxicology, Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Technology-Sydney
  • Maria Byrne
    • Schools of Medical and Biological SciencesUniversity of Sydney

DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1395-6

Cite this article as:
Spolyarich, N., Hyne, R.V., Wilson, S.P. et al. Environ Monit Assess (2011) 173: 397. doi:10.1007/s10661-010-1395-6


Three frog species (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, Limnodynastes fletcheri and Litoria raniformis) were surveyed in rice bays of the Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), NSW, Australia, during the rice-growing seasons of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. A total external morphological abnormality index of 7.0% was observed in frogs of the CIA (n = 1,209). The types and frequencies of abnormalities were typical of reports from agricultural areas with ectrodactyly being the most common aberration. A relatively low abnormality index of 1.2% was observed in L. raniformis (n = 87) compared to indices of 7.1% and 8.2% observed in L. fletcheri (n = 694) and L. tasmaniensis (n = 428), respectively. No conclusive evidence was found of unnaturally high rates of intersex, gonadal maldevelopment or unbalanced sex ratios in any species. Rice bay surface waters differed significantly in mean pesticide concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor on farms growing rice and corn compared to farms with rice as the sole crop. However, the similar abnormality indices observed in recent metamorphs emerging from these two farm types provided no evidence to suggest a link between larval exposure to the measured pesticides and developmental malformations.


AtrazineMetolachlorAnuran malformationIntersexFrog deformity

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