Dynamics of pesticide residues in nectar and pollen of mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) grown in Himachal Pradesh (India)
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- Choudhary, A. & Sharma, D.C. Environ Monit Assess (2008) 144: 143. doi:10.1007/s10661-007-9952-3
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Residues dynamics of Endosulfan (525.00 g a.i. ha−1), Imidacloprid seed treatment (21 g a.i. kg−1), Lambdacyhalothrin (75.00 g a.i. ha−1) and Spiromesifen (225.00 g a.i. ha−1) in nectar and pollen of mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. grown in Himachal Pradesh (India) were determined through bioassay (using Drosophila melanogaster Meig. as test organism) and GC (Gas chromatographic) and HPLC (High performance liquid chromatographic) methods. In general chromatographic methods were more sensitive for the determination of above given pesticides compared to bioassay method. Average recoveries in nectar samples varied between 82.85 and 88.90% by bioassay and 91.20 and 93.55% by chromatographic techniques. In pollen samples, recoveries varied between 81.44 and 86.44% by bioassay and 88.50 and 91.30% by chromatographic methods. Imidacloprid residues were neither found in nectar nor in pollen samples at the time of sampling i.e. 50% of flowering. The order of average half life of residues was: Lambdacyhalothrin (12.45 h) < Spiromesifen (19.99 h) < Endosulfan (27.49 h) for nectar and Spiromesifen (9.69 h) < Lambdacyhalothrin (12.44 h) < Endosulfan (17.84 h) for pollen samples. It was found that Imidcloprid seed treatment was practically harmless to honey bees, whereas a waiting period of 5 days must be observed on crops sprayed with these chemicals during blooms to avoid any accidental hazards to honey bees.