Anonymous (1993). Report of the AMVA panel on euthanasia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 202, 229–249.
Bickham, J. W. (1990). Flow cytometry as a technique to monitor the effects of environmental genotoxins on wildlife populations. In S. S. Sandhu, W. R. Lower, F. J. de Serres, W. A. Suk, & R. R. Tice (Eds.), In situ evaluations of biological hazards of environmental pollutants (pp. 97–108). New York: Plenum.
Bickham, J. W. (1994). Genotoxic responses in blood detected by cytogenetic and cytometric assays. In M. C. Fossi & C. Leonzio (Eds.), Nondestructive biomarkers in vertebrates (pp. 141–152). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.
Bishop, C. A., Koster, M. D., Chek, A. A., Hussell, D. J. T., & Jock, K. (1995). Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus
) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor
) from wetlands in the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence River basin. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 14
Blancher, P. J., & McNicol, D. K. (1991). Tree swallow diet in relation to wetland acidity. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69
Burke, M. D., & Mayer, R. T. (1983). Differential effects of phenobarbitone and 3-methylcholanthrene induction on the hepatic microsomal metabolism and cytochrome P-450-binding of phenoxazone and a homologous series of its n-alkyl ethers (alkoxyresorufins). Chemico-Biological Interactions, 45
Clarke, K. R., & Warwick, R. M. (2001). Change in marine communities: An approach to statistical analysis and interpretation (2nd ed.). Plymouth, UK: Plymouth Marine Laboratories.
Custer, C. M., Custer, T. W., Allen, P. D., Stromborg, K. L., & Melancon, M. L. (1998). Reproduction and environmental contamination in tree swallows nesting in the Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17
Custer, C. M., Custer, T. W., Archuleta, A. S., Coppock, L. C., Swartz, C. D., & Bickham, J. W. (2003a). A mining impacted stream: Exposure and effects of lead and other trace elements on tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado. In Hoffman et al. (Eds.), Handbook of ecotoxicology, vol. 2 (pp. 787–812). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.
Custer, T. W., Custer, C. M., Dickerson, K., Allen, K., Melancon, M. J., & Schmidt, L. J. (2001). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, trace elements and monooxygenase activity in birds nesting on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20
Custer, C. M., Custer, T. W., Dummer, P. M., & Munney, K. L. (2003b). Exposure and effects of chemical contamination on tree swallows nesting along the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, 1998–2000. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22
Custer, C. M., Custer, T. W., Rosiu, C. J., Melancon, M. J., Bickham, J. W., Matson, C. W. (2005). Exposure and effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p
-dioxin in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor
) nesting along the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24
Custer, T. W., Hines, R. K., Melancon, M. J., Hoffman, D. J., Wickliffe, J. K., Bickham, J. W., et al. (1997). Contaminant concentrations and biomarker response in great blue heron eggs from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16
DeWeese, L. R., Cohen, R. R., & Stafford, C. J. (1985). Organochlorine residues and eggshell measurements for tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor
in Colorado. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 35
Elliott, J. E., Martin, P. A., Arnold, T. W., & Sinclair, P. H. (1994). Organochlorines and reproductive success of birds in orchard and non-orchard areas of central British Columbia, Canada, 1990–91. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 26
Fairchild, W. L., Muir, D. C. G., Currie, R. S., & Yarechewski, A. L. (1992). Emerging insects as a biotic pathway for movement of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran from lake sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 11
Gasaway, W. C., & Buss, I. O. (1972). Zinc toxicity in the mallard duck. Journal of Wildlife Management, 36
Gerrard, P. M., & St. Louis, V. L. (2001). The effects of experimental reservoir creation on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury and reproductive success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor
). Environmental Science & Technology, 35
Hensler, G. L., & Nichols, J. D. (1981). The Mayfield method of estimating nesting success: A model, estimators and simulation results. Wilson Bulletin, 93, 42–53.
Hoffman, D. J., & Heinz, G. H. (1998). Effects of mercury and selenium on glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in mallard ducks. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17
King, K. A., Custer, T. W., & Weaver, D. A. (1994). Reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east Texas, USA. Environmental Pollution, 84
Kraus, M. L. (1989). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in pre-fledgling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor
. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 43
Mayfield, H. (1961). Nesting success calculated from exposure. Wilson Bulletin, 73, 255–261.
Mayfield, H. (1975). Suggestions for calculating nest success. Wilson Bulletin, 87, 456–466.
Melancon, M. J. (1996). Development of cytochromes P450 in avian species as a biomarker for environmental contaminant exposure and effect. Procedures and baseline values. In D. A. Bengston, & D. S. Henshel (Eds.), Environmental toxicology and risk assessment: Biomarkers and risk Assessment, vol. 5 ASTM STP 1306 (pp. 95–108). Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials.
Mengelkoch, J. M., Niemi, G. J., & Regal, R. R. (2004). Diet of the nestling tree swallow. Condor, 106,
Quinney, T. E., & Ankney, C. D. (1985). Prey size selection by tree swallows. Auk, 102, 245–250.
Robertson, R. J., Stutchbury, B. J., & Cohen, R. R. (1992). Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). In: A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, & F. Gill (Eds.), The birds of North America, No. 11 (p. 26). Philadelphia, PA: Academy of Natural Sciences.
Sauer, J. R., & Williams, B. K. (1989). General procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates. Journal of wildlife management, 53
Shaw, G. C. (1983). Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues in eggs and nestlings of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, in central Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 98, 258–260.
Smits, J. E., Wayland, M. E., Miller, M. J., Liber, K., & Trudeau, S. (2000). Reproductive, immune, and physiological end points in tree swallows on reclaimed oil sands mine sites. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19
Thompson, D. R. (1996). Mercury in birds and terrestrial mammals. In W. M. Beyer, G. H. Heinz, & A. W. Redmon-Norwood (Eds.), Environmental contaminants in wildlife. Interpreting tissue concentrations (pp. 341–356). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.
US Department of the Interior (1998). Guidelines for interpretation of the biological effects of selected contaminants in biota, water, and sediment, National Irrigation Water Quality Program Information Report 3, Denver, CO.
U.S. Geological Survey (1995). Contaminants in the Mississippi River, 1987–92. In R. H. Meade (Ed.), U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1133, 140pp.
Vindelov L. L., & Christensen, I. J. (1994). Detergent and proteolytic enzyme-based techniques for nuclear isolation and DNA content analysis. In Z. Darzynkiewicz, J. P. Robinson, & H. A. Crissman (Eds.), Flow cytometry: Methods in cell biology (2nd ed.) (pp. 219–229). New York: Academic. Part A.
Wiener, J. G., Jackson, G. A., May, T. W., & Cole, B. P. (1984). Longitudinal distribution of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se) in fishes and sediments in the Upper Mississippi River. In J. G. Wiener, R. V. Anderson, & D. R. McConville (Eds.), Contaminants in the Upper Mississippi River. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Mississippi River Research Consortium (pp. 139–170). Stoneham, MA: Butterworth.
Wiener, J. G., Krabbenhoft, D. F., Heinz, G. F., & Scheuhammer, A. M. (2003). Ecotoxicology of mercury. In D. J. Hoffman, B. A. Rattner, G. A. Burton Jr., & J. Cairns Jr. (Eds.), Handbook of ecotoxicology, vol. 2 (pp. 409–463). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.