Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Greywater Recycling Technologies for New Developments
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- Memon, F.A., Zheng, Z., Butler, D. et al. Environ Monit Assess (2007) 129: 27. doi:10.1007/s10661-006-9422-3
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This paper presents the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of four treatment technologies currently under investigation for recycling the greywater generated from households and describes the development of a new LCIA tool set produced in this study. The technologies investigated include reed beds, membrane bioreactors (MBR); membrane chemical reactors (MCR) and an innovative green roof water recycling system (GROW). The materials and energy required for the construction and operation phases of these technologies have been quantified for 20 development scales. All of the information gathered is used to prepare life cycle inventories for each technology. The inventories have been used as an input to Simapro Software for performing LCIA. Two assessment methods (CML-2 and Eco-indc-99) have been employed. For the CML method, the results were processed to express the environmental performance in ten impact categories including climate change/global warming, depletion of abiotic resources, acidification, eutrophication, and human toxicity. For the Eco-indc-99 method, results are shown in three generic environmental indicators: human health, eco system and natural resources. LCIA results obtained for 20 development scales have been used to develop a tool set using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system technique. The study results indicate that the technologies based on natural treatment processes (GROW and reed beds) have low environmental impact.