Eight nonnative plants in western Oregon forests: Associations with environment and management Article Received: 14 April 2003 Accepted: 13 November 2003 DOI:
Cite this article as: Gray, A.N. Environ Monit Assess (2005) 100: 109. doi:10.1007/s10661-005-7060-9 Abstract
Nonnative plants have tremendous ecological and economic impacts on plant communities globally, but comprehensive data on the distribution and ecological relationships of individual species is often scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of vegetation type, climate, topography, and management history on the distribution and abundance of eight selected nonnative plant taxa in forests in western Oregon. These eight taxa were selected as being reliably detected by a multi-resource inventory of 1127 systematically-placed plots on nonfederal forest lands from 1995 to 1997 by the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. One or more of the eight nonnative taxa studied were found on 20% of the sampled subplots in the study area, but relatively few stands were dominated by them. Overall abundance of nonnative taxa was likely much greater, because few composites and graminoids were identified to species in this general-purpose inventory. Distribution of most taxa was more closely associated with low density of overstory trees than with climate. Nonnative taxa were significantly more abundant in stands that had been recently clearcut or thinned than in stands that had not. Frequencies of several taxa decreased with elevation, which may reflect proximity to source populations and intensive land use rather than any climatic constraints. Although the greatest potential for displacement of native forest species appears to be in early-successional communities, the potential for spread of some shade-tolerant evergreen shrubs also seems high.
Keywords autecology conifer forest invasive plants management monitoring References Azuma, D. L., Bednar, L. F., Hiserote, B. A., Veneklase, C. A. 2002Timber Resource Statistics for Western Oregon, 1997 USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Portland, OR Google Scholar Bailey, J. D., Marysohn, C., Doescher, P. S., Pierre, E., Tappeiner, J. C. 1998 Understory vegetation in old and young Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon For. Ecol. Manage. 112 289 302 Google Scholar Bailey, R. G. 1980Ecoregions of the United States USDA Forest Service Washington, DC Google Scholar Crompton, C. W., Hall, I. V., Jensen, K. I. N., Hildebrand, P. D. 1988 The biology of Canadian weeds. 83. Hypericum perforatum L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68 149 162 CrossRef Google Scholar D’Antonio, C. M., Vitousek, P. M. 1992 Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 23 63 87 Google Scholar Daly, C., Neilson, R. P., Phillips, D. L. 1994 A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain. J. Appl. Meteor. 33 140 158 Google Scholar De’ath, G., Fabricius, K. E. 2000 Classification and regression trees: a powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis Ecology 81 3178 3192 Google Scholar Doucet, C., Cavers, P. B. 1996 A persistent seed bank of the bull thistle Cirsium vulgare Can. J. Bot. 74 1386 1391 Google Scholar Franklin, J. F., Dyrness, C. T. 1973Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Portland, OR Google Scholar
Gray, A. N.: ‘Repeatability and implementation of a forest vegetation indicator’ (in review).
Groom, Q. J., Baker, N. R., Long, S. P. 1991 Photoinhibition of holly ( Ilex aquifolium) in the field during the winter Physiol. Plant. 83 585 590 Google Scholar Halpern, C. B. 1989 Early successional patterns of forest species: interactions of life history traits and disturbance Ecology 70 704 720 Google Scholar Hobbs, R. J. 2000 Land-use Changes and Invasions Mooney, H. A. Hobbs, R. J. H. eds. Invasive Species in a Changing World Island Press Washington, D.C. Google Scholar Hodgson, J. M. 1968The Nature, Ecology, and Control of Canada thistle USDA Agricultural Research Service Washington D.C. Google Scholar Iverson, L. R., Prassad, A. M. 1998 Predicting abundance of 80 tree species following climate change in the eastern United States Ecol. Mono. 68 465 485 Google Scholar Mack, R. N. 2000 Assessing the Extent, Status, and Dynamism in Plant Invasions: Current and Emerging Approaches Mooney, H. A. Hobbs, R. J. H. eds. Invasive Species in a Changing World Island Press Washington, D.C. Google Scholar McClennan, B. R., Ashford, R., Devine, M. D. 1991 Cirsium Arvense (L.) Scop. competition with winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) Weed Res. 31 409 415 Google Scholar McKenzie, D., Halpern, C. B. 1999 Modeling the distributions of shrub species in Pacific Northwest forests For. Ecol. Manage. 114 293 307 Google Scholar Mooney, H. A., Hobbs, R. J. H. 2000Invasive Species in a Changing World Island Press Washington, D.C Google Scholar Ohmann, J. L., Spies, T. A. 1998 Regional gradient analysis and spatial pattern of woody plant communities of Oregon forests Ecol. Mono. 68 151 182 Google Scholar Ohmann, J. L., Gregory, M. J. 2002 Predictive mapping of forest composition and structure with direct gradient analysis and nearest neighbor imputation in coastal Oregon, USA Can. J. For. Res. 32 725 741 Google Scholar Oke, T. R. 1987Boundary Layer Climates Routledge London Google Scholar Olsen, A. R., Sedransk, J., Edwards, D., Gotway, C. A., Liggett, W., Rathbun, S., Reckhow, K. H., Young, L. J. 1999 Statistical issues for monitoring ecological and natural resources in the United States Environ. Monit. Assess. 54 1 45 Google Scholar Oregon Department of Agriculture 2001Oregon Noxious Weed Strategic Plan: Comprehensive Guide for the Protection of Oregon’s Resources Oregon Department of Agriculture Salem, OR Google Scholar Pabst, R. J., Spies, T. A. 2001 Ten years of vegetation succession on a debris-flow deposit in Oregon J. Am. Wat. Res. Ass. 37 1693 1708 Google Scholar Parendes, L. A., Jones, J. A. 2000 Role of light availability and dispersal in exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon Cons. Biol. 14 64 75 Google Scholar Parker, A. J. 1982 The topographic relative moisture index: an approach to soil-moisture assessment in mountain terrain Phys. Geog. 3 160 168 Google Scholar Peterson, D. L., Prasad, R. 1998 The biology of Canadian weeds. 109. Cytisus scoparius (l.) Link. Can. J. Plant Sci. 78 497 504 Google Scholar Randall, J. M., Rejmánek, M. 1993 Interference of bull thistle ( Cirsium vulgare) with growth of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) seedlings in a forest plantation Can. J. For. Res. 23 1507 1513 Google Scholar Rejmánek, M., Richardson, D. M. 1996 What attributes makes some plant species more invasive? Ecology 77 1655 1661 Google Scholar
SAS Institute Inc.: 1999,
SAS/STAT User’s Guide, version 8, Cary, NC. Stapanian, M. A., Cline, S. P., Cassell, D. A. 1997 Evaluation of a measurement method for forest vegetation in a large-scale ecological survey Environ. Monit. Assess. 45 237 257 Google Scholar Stapanian, M. A., Sundberg, S. D., Baumgardner, G. A., Liston, A. 1998 Alien plant species composition and associations with anthropogenic disturbance in North American forests Plant Ecol. 139 49 62 Google Scholar
USDA N7RCS: 2000,
The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 U.S.A.. Baalen, J. 1982 Germination ecology and seed population dynamics of Digitalis purpurea Oecologia 53 61 67 Google Scholar Baalen, J., Prins, E. G. M. 1983 Growth and reproduction of Digitalis purpurea in different stages of succession Oecologia 58 84 91 Google Scholar Vitousek, P. M., D’Antonio, C. M., Loope, L. L., Westbrooks, R. 1996 Biological invasions as global environmental change Amer. Scientist 84 468 478 Google Scholar Wheeler, C. T., Helgerson, O. T., Perry, D. A., Gordon, J. C. 1987 Nitrogen fixation and biomass accumulation in plant communities dominated by Cytisus scoparius L. in Oregon and Scotland J. Appl. Ecol. 24 231 237 Google Scholar