Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals
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- Boutigny, AL., Ward, T.J., Ballois, N. et al. Eur J Plant Pathol (2014) 138: 133. doi:10.1007/s10658-013-0312-6
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Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot (FER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern due to their toxicity to humans and farm animals. In this study, species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 294 members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) collected from wheat, barley and maize in France in 2011 was determined using a microsphere-based multilocus genotyping assay. F. graminearum was predominant on all three hosts, but three isolates of F. cortaderiae and two isolates representing F. graminearum × F. boothii hybrids were also identified from maize. The 15-ADON trichothecene chemotype predominated on all three hosts, representing 94.7 %, 87.8 % and 85.4 % of the strains on barley (N = 19), wheat (N = 90), and maize (N = 185), respectively. However, the NIV chemotype was found in 12.2 % of the wheat isolates and in 14.6 % of the maize isolates. Only a single FGSC isolate from this study, originating from barley, was found to have the 3-ADON chemotype. Regional differences could be observed in the distribution of the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, with the NIV producing-isolates being present at higher frequency (21.2 %) in the South of France compared to the rest of the country (4.4 %). Such information is critical because of the increased concern associated with NIV contamination of cereals. In addition, these results are needed to develop management strategies for FHB and FER in France and to improve understanding of the distribution and significance of FGSC diversity in Europe and worldwide.