, Volume 121, Issue 4, pp 411-423
Date: 22 Jan 2008

Natural mechanisms for cereal resistance to the accumulation of Fusarium trichothecenes

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Abstract

This review describes the naturally occurring mechanisms in cereals that lead to a reduction of Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxin accumulation in grains. A reduction in mycotoxin contamination in grains could also limit fungal infection, as trichothecenes have been reported to act as virulence factors. The mechanisms explaining the low toxin accumulation trait, generally referred to as type V resistance to Fusarium, can be subdivided into two classes. Class 1 includes mechanisms by which the plants chemically transform the trichothecenes, leading to their degradation or detoxification. Among the detoxification strategies, glycosylation of trichothecenes is a natural process already reported in wheat. According to the structure and the toxicity of trichothecenes, two other detoxification processes, acetylation and de-epoxidation, can be expressed, at least in transgenic plants. Class 2 comprises mechanisms that lead to reduced mycotoxin accumulation by inhibition of their biosynthesis through the action of plant endogenous compounds. These include both grain constitutive compounds and compounds induced in response to pathogen infection. There are already many compounds with antioxidant properties, like phenolic compounds, peptides or carotenoids, and with prooxidant properties, like hydrogen peroxide or linoleic acid-derived hydroperoxides, that have been described as ‘modulators’ of mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review addresses for the first time different studies reporting specific in vitro effects of such compounds on the biosynthesis of Fusarium mycotoxins. A better understanding of the natural processes limiting accumulation of trichothecenes in the plant will open the way to the development of novel breeding varieties with reduced ‘mycotoxin risk’.