European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 110, Issue 9, pp 929–937

Can phyllosphere yeasts explain the effect of scab fungicides on russeting of Elstar apples?


  • P.R. Gildemacher
    • Applied Plant Research PPO
  • B. Heijne
    • Applied Plant Research PPO
  • J. Houbraken
    • Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures
  • T. Vromans
    • Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures
  • E.S. Hoekstra
    • Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures
  • T. Boekhout
    • Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures

DOI: 10.1007/s10658-004-8948-x

Cite this article as:
Gildemacher, P., Heijne, B., Houbraken, J. et al. European Journal of Plant Pathology (2004) 110: 929. doi:10.1007/s10658-004-8948-x


In 1999 and 2000, the effects of scab fungicides on yeast composition and russeting of Elstar apples were assessed. Yeast composition of fungicide-treated and untreated young apple fruit with or without russet symptoms was investigated and enzyme activity of the yeasts was studied. Cryptococcus albidus, C.␣laurentii,Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporobolomyces roseus andMetschnikowia pulcherrima dominated the apple fruit surface. Russeted apple fruitlets had a higher red yeast density than non-russeted fruitlets. In␣vitro fungicide susceptibility of the dominant yeast species varied. Dithianon and dodine were active against all tested species, captan and tolylfluanid showed specificity for certain species, whereas pyrimethanil and bupirimate were largely ineffective. Fungicide treatment in the field had a clear effect on the yeast composition. Metschnikowia etschnikowia pulcherrima was eliminated from the phyllosphere and cryptococco$ï species diminished by both captan and dithianon. The red yeast population was not significantly changed by either fungicide. Captan, dithianon, tolylfluanid and pyrimethanil reduced russet in the field in both years, dodine and kresoxim-methyl only in 2000. All yeast species had cutinolytic activity, all but M.␣pulcherrimaand Debaryomyces hansenii were lipolytic, and some of the isolates showed proteolytic activity.

apple enzyme activity in vitrosusceptibility russet yeast

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004