European Journal of Law and Economics

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 607-622

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Intellectual property and economic development in Germany: empirical evidence for 1999–2009

  • Andreas BieligAffiliated withInstitute for World Economy Research and Polish German Academic Forum, Warsaw School of Economics Email author 


The study analyses the relationship between the development of registered intellectual property and economic development in Germany. It shows a differing evidence for specific categories of intellectual property, indicating that not all intellectual property rights show a significant impact on the German Gross Domestic Product. Positive impacts have the stocks of patents, trademarks and designs. Applications for utility models surprisingly have a negative impact, what challenges developments of the economic theory. The empirical results delight also the specific structure of the technological and innovation system in the German economy, showing a national intellectual property profile with three key factors: product differentiation, complex technologies and design development.


Intellectual property Growth Patent Trademark Design Utility model

JEL Classification

O11 O31 O34 O52