Paternal age and mortality in children
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Background Since paternal age correlates with some diseases that have a high case-fatality, a paternal age effect on offspring’s survival is expected but unsettled. We examined the association between paternal age and mortality in children in a large population-based cohort taking maternal age and socioeconomic factors into account. Methods From the Danish Fertility Database (1980–1996), we identified 102,879 couples and their firstborn singleton children. Information on childhood death (N = 831) was obtained by linking the cohort to the nationwide register on cause of death (1980–1998). Results We observed a U-shaped association between paternal age and the overall mortality rate in children up to 18 years of age. Adjustment for maternal age and other confounders reduced the mortality rate ratio (MRR) for children of younger fathers but not for children of older fathers. Compared with children of fathers aged between 25 and 29 years, the adjusted MRR was 1.77 (95% confidence interval 1.28–2.45) for children of fathers aged between 45 and 49 years and 1.59 (1.03–2.46) for children of fathers aged 50 years or more. The cause-specific MRRs were highest for congenital malformations [2.35 (1.42–3.88)] and injury or poisoning [3.43 (1.49–7.92)] for children of fathers aged 45 years or more. Conclusion Our data revealed a higher mortality in offspring of fathers aged 45 years or more that lasted into adulthood. This adds to the cumulating evidence on adverse effects of advanced paternal age in procreation.
- Astolfi P, De Pasquale A, Zonta LA. Late paternity and stillbirth risk. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:2497–501. CrossRef
- Astolfi P, De Pasquale A, Zonta LA. Paternal age and preterm birth in Italy, 1990 to 1998. Epidemiology. 2006;17:218–21. CrossRef
- Becher H, Muller O, Jahn A, Gbangou A, Kynast-Wolf G, Kouyate B. Risk factors of infant and child mortality in rural Burkina Faso. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:265–73.
- Bray I, Gunnell D, Davey SG. Advanced paternal age: how old is too old? J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006;60:851–3. CrossRef
- Brittain AW. The effect of parental age, birth order and other variables on early childhood mortality: a Caribbean example. Soc Sci Med. 1992;35:1259–71. CrossRef
- Crow JF. The origins, patterns and implications of human spontaneous mutation. Nat Rev Genet. 2000;1:40–7. CrossRef
- Crow JF. Age and sex effects on human mutation rates: an old problem with new complexities. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2006;47(Suppl B):B75–82. CrossRef
- Day SM, Wu YW, Strauss DJ, Shavelle RM, Reynolds RJ. Causes of death in remote symptomatic epilepsy. Neurology. 2005;65:216–22. CrossRef
- De La RE, Thonneau P. Paternal age and maternal age are risk factors for miscarriage; results of a multicentre European study. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1649–56. CrossRef
- Dockerty JD, Draper G, Vincent T, Rowan SD, Bunch KJ. Case–control study of parental age, parity and socioeconomic level in relation to childhood cancers. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:1428–37. CrossRef
- Draper ES, Kurinczuk JJ, Abrams KR, Clarke M. Assessment of separate contributions to perinatal mortality of infertility history and treatment: a case–control analysis. Lancet. 1999;353:1746–9. CrossRef
- Gilbert W, Jandial D, Field N, Bigelow P, Danielsen B. Birth outcomes in teenage pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2004;16:265–70. CrossRef
- Joffe M, Li Z. Association of time to pregnancy and the outcome of pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1994;62:71–5.
- Juel K, Helweg-Larsen K. The Danish registers of causes of death. Dan Med Bull. 1999;46:354–7.
- Kleinhaus K, Perrin M, Friedlander Y, Paltiel O, Malaspina D, Harlap S. Paternal age and spontaneous abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:369–77.
- Knudsen LB. The Danish fertility database. Dan Med Bull. 1998;45:221–5.
- Lauritsen MB, Pedersen CB, Mortensen PB. Effects of familial risk factors and place of birth on the risk of autism: a nationwide register-based study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46:963–71. CrossRef
- Malaspina D, Harlap S, Fennig S, Heiman D, Nahon D, Feldman D, Susser ES. Advancing paternal age and the risk of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:361–7. CrossRef
- Nybo Andersen AM, Hansen KD, Andersen PK, Davey SG. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160:1214–22. CrossRef
- Pedersen CB, Gotzsche H, Moller JO, Mortensen PB. The Danish civil registration system. A cohort of eight million persons. Dan Med Bull. 2006;53:441–9.
- Reichenberg A, Gross R, Weiser M, Bresnahan M, Silverman J, Harlap S, Rabinowitz J, Shulman C, Malaspina D, Lubin G, et al. Advancing paternal age and autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:1026–32. CrossRef
- Shavelle RM, Strauss DJ, Pickett J. Causes of death in autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2001;31:569–76. CrossRef
- Sipos A, Rasmussen F, Harrison G, Tynelius P, Lewis G, Leon DA, Gunnell D. Paternal age and schizophrenia: a population based cohort study. BMJ. 2004;329:1070. CrossRef
- Slama R, Bouyer J, Windham G, Fenster L, Werwatz A, Swan SH. Influence of paternal age on the risk of spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161:816–23. CrossRef
- Stene J, Fischer G, Stene E, Mikkelsen M, Petersen E. Paternal age effect in Down’s syndrome. Ann Hum Genet. 1977;40:299–306. CrossRef
- Vestergaard M, Mork A, Madsen KM, Olsen J. Paternal age and epilepsy in the offspring. Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20:1003–5. CrossRef
- Wunsch G, Gourbin C. Parents’ age at birth of their offspring and child survival. Soc Biol. 2002;49:174–84.
- Yang Q, Wen SW, Leader A, Chen XK, Lipson J, Walker M. Paternal age and birth defects: how strong is the association? Hum Reprod. 2007;22:696–701. CrossRef
- Yip BH, Pawitan Y, Czene K. Parental age and risk of childhood cancers: a population-based cohort study from Sweden. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:1495–503. CrossRef
- Zhu JL, Madsen KM, Vestergaard M, Basso O, Olsen J. Paternal age and preterm birth. Epidemiology. 2005;16:259–62. CrossRef
- Zhu JL, Madsen KM, Vestergaard M, Olesen AV, Basso O, Olsen J. Paternal age and congenital malformations. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:3173–7. CrossRef
- Paternal age and mortality in children
European Journal of Epidemiology
Volume 23, Issue 7 , pp 443-447
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Paternal age
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. The Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, University of Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark
- 2. Department of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark
- 3. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, UCLA, Box 951772, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1772, USA