Original Paper

Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 419-430

First online:

Geologic occurrences of erionite in the United States: an emerging national public health concern for respiratory disease

  • Bradley S. Van GosenAffiliated withU.S. Geological Survey, M.S. 973 Email author 
  • , Thomas A. BlitzAffiliated withU.S. Geological Survey, M.S. 964
  • , Geoffrey S. PlumleeAffiliated withU.S. Geological Survey, M.S. 964
  • , Gregory P. MeekerAffiliated withU.S. Geological Survey, M.S. 973
  • , M. Patrick PiersonAffiliated withU.S. Forest Service

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Erionite, a mineral series within the zeolite group, is classified as a Group 1 known respiratory carcinogen. This designation resulted from extremely high incidences of mesothelioma discovered in three small villages from the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where the disease was linked to environmental exposures to fibrous forms of erionite. Natural deposits of erionite, including fibrous forms, have been identified in the past in the western United States. Until recently, these occurrences have generally been overlooked as a potential hazard. In the last several years, concerns have emerged regarding the potential for environmental and occupational exposures to erionite in the United States, such as erionite-bearing gravels in western North Dakota mined and used to surface unpaved roads. As a result, there has been much interest in identifying locations and geologic environments across the United States where erionite occurs naturally. A 1996 U.S. Geological Survey report describing erionite occurrences in the United States has been widely cited as a compilation of all US erionite deposits; however, this compilation only focused on one of several geologic environments in which erionite can form. Also, new occurrences of erionite have been identified in recent years. Using a detailed literature survey, this paper updates and expands the erionite occurrences database, provided in a supplemental file (US_erionite.xls). Epidemiology, public health, and natural hazard studies can incorporate this information on known erionite occurrences and their characteristics. By recognizing that only specific geologic settings and formations are hosts to erionite, this knowledge can be used in developing management plans designed to protect the public.


Erionite Fibrous Carcinogen United States Environmental Occurrences