A comparative study of the extractability of arsenic species from silverbeet and amaranth vegetables
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
There is still no reliable standard extraction method for the speciation of arsenic (As) in plant tissue, and hence there is great interest in developing one for plants that are used as human food. Speciation and bioavailability are critical for accurate human health risk assessment, as As species vary in both their toxicity and bioavailability. Recent incidences of As poisoning in many countries have led to significant research into the fate and dynamics of As in the soil and water environment, including speciation. Although one of the major pathways of ingestion of As is via food, only limited research has been conducted to assess the nature and proportion of various As species present in food crops. In this study, we compared the efficacy of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and protein extracting solution for the extractability of As from two different species of spinach (amaranth and silverbeet). We found that a microwave-assisted technique with protein extracting solution was most effective, yielding 76–114% extractability and excellent separation and speciation of all As species present in the spinach matrices. The stability test for extracted As species showed them as stable for 45 days without any significant loss or inter-conversion. Both AsIII and AsV were identified in the shoots of amaranth and silverbeet. However, the percentage of As species varied between amaranth and silverbeet. The silverbeet shoot showed a somewhat higher percentage of AsV, while the amaranth showed a higher percentage of AsIII. The samples contained mostly inorganic As, especially AsIII (>90%) in the edible part of the vegetables, a form that is more toxic and bioavailable than other organic and methylated species.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Abedin, M. J., Cresser, M. S., Meharg, A. A., Feldmann, J., & Cotter-Howells, J. (2002). Arsenic accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environmental Science & Technology, 36, 962–968. CrossRef
- Akter, K., Chen, Z., Smith, L., Davey, D., & Naidu, R. (2005a). Speciation of arsenic in ground water samples: A comparative study of CE-UV, HG-AAS and LC-ICP-MS. Talanta, 68, 406–415. CrossRef
- Akter, K., & Naidu, R. (2006). Arsenic speciation in the environment. In R. Naidu, et al. (Eds.), Managing Arsenic in the environment: from soil to human health (pp. 61–74). Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
- Akter, K. F., Owens, G., Davey, D. E., & Naidu, R. (2005b). Arsenic speciation and toxicity in biological systems. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 184, 97–149. CrossRef
- Brisbin, J. A., B’Hymer, C., & Caruso, J. A. (2002). A gradient anion exchange chromatographic method for the speciation of arsenic in lobster tissue extracts. Talanta, 58, 133–145. CrossRef
- Caruso, J. A., Heitkemper, D. T., & Hymer, C. B. (2001). An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic species from freeze-dried apple samples. Analyst, 126, 136–140. CrossRef
- Chen, Z. L., Akter, K. F., Rahman, M. M., & Naidu, R. (2007). The separation of arsenic species in soils and plant tissues by anion-exchange chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry using various mobile phases. Microchemica Acta. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2007.10.007.
- Day, J. E., Montes-bayon, M., Vonderheide, A. P., & Caruso, J. A. (2002). A study of method robustness for arsenic speciation in drinking water samples by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 373, 664–668.
- Gong, Z. L., Lu, X. F., Ma, M. S., Watt, C., & Le, X. C. (2002). Arsenic speciation analysis. Talanta, 58, 77–96. CrossRef
- He, B., Fang, Y., Jiang, G. B., & Ni, Z. M. (2002). Optimization of the extraction for the determination of arsenic species in plant materials by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 57, 1705–1711. CrossRef
- Heitkemper, D. T., Vela, N. P., Stewart, K. R., & Westphal, C. S. (2001). Determination of total and speciated arsenic in rice by ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 16, 299–306. CrossRef
- Helgesen, H., & Larsen, E. H. (1998). Bioavailability and speciation of arsenic in carrots grown in contaminated soil. Analyst, 123, 791–796. CrossRef
- Jokai, Z., Hegoczki, J., & Fodor, P. (1998). Stability and optimization of extraction of four arsenic species. Microchemical Journal, 59, 117–124. CrossRef
- Kirby, J., Maher, W., Chariton, A., & Krikowa, F. (2002). Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 16, 192–201. CrossRef
- Koch, I., Hough, C., Mousseau, S., Mir, K., Rutter, A., Ollson, C., et al. (2002). Sample extraction for arsenic speciation. Canadian Journal of Analytical Sciences and Spectroscopy, 47, 109–118.
- Koch, I., Wang, L. X., Ollson, C. A., Cullen, W. R., & Reimer, K. J. (2000). The predominance of inorganic arsenic species in plants from Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Environmental Science & Technology, 34, 22–26. CrossRef
- Kuehnelt, D., Lintschinger, J., & Goessler, W. (2000). Arsenic compounds in terrestrial organisms. IV. Green plants and lichens from an old arsenic smelter site in Austria. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 14, 411–420. CrossRef
- Maher, W., Goessler, W., Kirby, J., & Raber, G. (1999). Arsenic concentrations and speciation in the tissues and blood of sea mullet (Mugil cephalus) from Lake Macquarie NSW, Australia. Marine Chemistry, 68, 169–182. CrossRef
- Montperrus, M., Bohari, Y., Bueno, M., Astruc, A., & Astruc, M. (2002). Comparison of extraction procedures for arsenic speciation in environmental solid reference materials by high-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 16, 347–354. CrossRef
- Pickering, I., Prince, R., Salt, D., & George, G. (2000). Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian mustard. Plant Physiology, 122, 1171–1177. CrossRef
- Pizarro, I., Gomez, M., Camara, C., & Palacios, M. A. (2003). Arsenic speciation in environmental and biological samples: Extraction and stability studies. Analytica Chimica Acta, 495, 85–98. CrossRef
- Quaghebeur, M., Rengel, Z., & Smirk, M. (2003). Arsenic speciation in terrestrial plant material using microwave-assisted extraction, ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 18, 128–134. CrossRef
- Sanz, E., Munoz-Olivas, R., & Camara, C. (2005). A rapid and novel alternative to conventional sample treatment for arsenic speciation in rice using enzymatic ultrasonic probe. Analytica Chimica Acta, 535, 227–235. CrossRef
- Schmidt, A.-C., Reisser, W., Mattusch, J., Popp, P., & Wennrich, R. (2000). Evaluation of extraction procedures for the ion chromatographic determination of arsenic species in plant materials. Journal of Chromatography A, 889, 83–91. CrossRef
- Van den Broeck, K., Vandecasteele, C., & Geuns, J. M. C. (1998). Speciation by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry of arsenic in mung bean seedlings used as a bio-indicator for the arsenic contamination. Analytica Chimica Acta, 361, 101–111. CrossRef
- Vela, N. P., Heitkemper, D. T., & Stewart, K. R. (2001). Arsenic extraction and speciation in carrots using accelerated solvent extraction, liquid chromatography and plasma mass spectrometry. Analyst, 126, 1011–1017. CrossRef
- Wang, J., Zhao, F.-J., Meharg, A., Raab, A., Feldmann, J., & McGrath, S. (2002). Mechanisms of arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata. Uptake kinetics, interactions with phosphate, and arsenic speciation. Plant Physiology, 130(3), 1552–1561. CrossRef
About this Article
- A comparative study of the extractability of arsenic species from silverbeet and amaranth vegetables
Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Volume 31, Issue 1 Supplement, pp 103-113
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Arsenic speciation
- Vegetable matrices
- Stability of species
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lake, SA, 5095, Australia
- 2. Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of South Australia, Mawson Lake, SA, 5095, Australia