Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics: The strategic interaction of successive motivational states within the person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Alagumalai, S., Curtis, D. D., Hungi, N. (Eds.). 2005. Applied Rasch measurement: A book of exemplars. New York: Springer.
Andrich, D. (2005). Rasch models for ordered response categories. In B. S. Everitt & D. C. Howell (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of statistics in behavioral science (pp. 1698–1707). Chichester: Wiley.
Arana, F. S., Parkinson, J. A., Hinton, E., Holland, A. J., Owen, A. M., & Roberts, A. C. (2003). Dissociable contributions of the human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex to incentive motivation and goal selection. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 9632–9638.
Axelrod, B. N., Fichtenberg, N. L., Millis, S. R., & Wertheimer, J. C. (2006). Detecting incomplete effort with digit span from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 20
Ball, S. (1982). Motivation. In H. E. Mitzel (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of educational research (5th ed., pp. 1256–1263). New York: Macmillan.
Bear, G. G., Minke, K. M., & Manning, M. A. (2002). Self-concept of students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. School Psychology Review, 31, 405–427.
Beatty, J. (1982). Phasic not tonic papillary responses vary with auditory vigilance performance. Psychophysiology, 19
Beauchaine, T. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray’s motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development & Psychopathology, 13
Berridge, K. C. (2004). Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiology & Behavior, 81
Binder, L. M. (2002). The Portland Digit Recognition Test: A review of validation data and clinical use. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2(3–4), 27–41.
Blair, C., Peters, R., & Granger, D. (2004). Physiological and neuropsychological correlates of approach/withdrawal tendencies in preschool: Further examination of the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scales for young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 45
Boersma, F. J., & Chapman, J. W. (1992). Perception of ability scale for students. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Bong, M. (1996). Problems in academic motivation research and advantages and disadvantages of their solutions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21
Bracken, B. A. (1992). Multidimensional self concept scale. Austin: Pro-Ed.
Brehm, J. W., & Self, E. A. (1989). The intensity of motivation. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 40
Byrne, B. M. (1996). Academic self-concept: Its structure, measurement, and relation to academic achievement. In B. A. Bracken (Ed.), Handbook of self-concept (pp. 287–316). New York: Wiley.
Byrne, B. M. (2002). Validating the measurement and structure of self-concept: Snapshots of past, present, and future research. American Psychologist, 57
Carver, C. S., & White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: The BIS/BAS scales. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 67
Chapman, J. W., & Tunmer, W. E. (1995). Development of young children’s reading self-concepts: An examination of emerging subcomponents and their relationship with reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87
Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience sampling method. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 175
Csikszentmihalyi, M., Abuhamdeh, S., & Nakamura, J. (2005). Flow. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 598–608). New York: Guilford.
Cumming, J., Olphin, T., & Law, M. (2007). Self-reported psychological states and physiological responses to different types of motivational general imagery. Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 29, 629–644.
Dörnyei, Z. (2000). Motivation in action: Towards a process-oriented conceptualization of student motivation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70
Dubrovinskaya, N. V., & Machinskaya, R. I. (2002). Reactivity of θ and α EEG frequency bands in voluntary attention in junior schoolchildren. Human Physiology, 28
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53
Elbaum, B., & Vaughn, S. (2003). For which students with learning disabilities are self-concept interventions effective? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36
Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2007). Color and psychological functioning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16
Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80
Elliot, A. J., & Murayama, K. (2008). On the measurement of achievement goals: Critique, illustration, and application. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100
Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Binser, M. J., Friedman, R., & Pekrun, R. (2009). The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 35
Elliott, A. J. (2004). Multimethod approaches in educational research. International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, 51
Elliott, R., Newman, J. L., Longe, O. A., & Deakin, J. F. W. (2003). Differential response patterns in the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex to financial reward in humans: A parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 303–307.
Ernst, M., Nelson, E. E., McClure, E. B., Monk, C. S., Munson, S., Eshel, N., et al. (2004). Choice selection and reward anticipation: An fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 42
Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., & Guay, F. (1995). Academic motivation and school performance: Toward a structural model. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20
Frijters, J.C., De Palma, M., Barron, R.W., & Lovett, M.W. 2005. Motivation as a moderator of response to remedial reading instruction: A (modifiable) aptitude x treatment interaction. Symposium paper presented at the 12th Annual Meetings of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading: Toronto, ON, June 24–26, 2005.
Gambrell, L. B., Palmer, B. M., Codling, R. M., & Mazzoni, S. A. (1996). Assessing motivation to read. The Reading Teacher, 49
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Gergen, K. J. (2001). Psychological science in a postmodern context. American Psychologist, 56
Gilmore, L., Cuskelly, M., & Hayes, A. (2003). A comparative study of mastery motivation in young children with Down’s syndrome: Similar outcomes, different processes? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47
Goltz, F. (1960). On the functions of the hemispheres. In G. von Bonin (Ed.), The cerebral cortex. Springfield: Thomas.
Gottfried, A. E. (1986). Manual for the children's academic intrinsic motivation inventory. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Gottfried, A. E. (1990). Academic intrinsic motivation in young elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82
Grant, H., & Dweck, C. S. (2003). Clarifying achievement goals and their impact. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85
Green, J. C. (2007). Mixed methods in social inquiry. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Grill, H. J., & Norgren, R. (1978). Neurological tests and behavioral deficits in chronic thalamic and chronic decerberate rats. Brain Research, 143
Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., & Blanchard, C. (2000). On the assessment of situational intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation & Emotion, 24
Hannula, M. S. (2006). Motivation in mathematics: Goals reflected in emotions. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 63
Harter, S. (1981). A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17
Harter, S. (1982). The Perceived Competence Scale for Children. Child Development, 53
Harter, S. (1985). The self-perception profile for children: Revision of the perceived competence scale for children manual. Denver: University of Denver.
Harter, S., & Pike, R. (1984). The pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance for young children. Child Development, 55
Hattie, J., & Marsh, H. W. (1996). Future directions in self-concept research. In B. A. Bracken (Ed.), Handbook of self-concept (pp. 421–462). New York: Wiley.
Heckhausen, H., & Kuhl, J. (1985). From wishes to action: The dead ends and short-cuts on the long way to action. In M. Frese & J. Sabini (Eds.), Goal-directed behavior: Psychological theory and research on action. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Henderlong, J., & Paris, S. G. (1996). Children’s motivation to explore partially completed exhibits in hands-on museums. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21
Henk, W. A., & Melnick, S. A. (1995). The Reader Self-Perception Scale (RSPS): A new tool for measuring how children feel about themselves as readers. The Reading Teacher, 48, 470–482.
Hickey, D. T. (1997). Motivation and contemporary socio-constructivist instructional perspectives. Educational Psychologist, 32
Hidi, S., Renninger, K. A., & Krapp, A. (1992). The present state of interest research. In K. A. Renninger, S. Hidi & A. Krapp (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development (pp. 433–447). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Hillman, C. H., Rosengren, K. S., & Smith, D. P. (2004). Emotion and motivated behavior: Postural adjustments to affective picture viewing. Biological Psychology, 66
Husserl, E. (1958). Ideas: General introduction to pure phenomenology. London: Allen & Unwin.
Jarvenoja, H., & Jarvela, S. (2005). How students describe the sources of their emotional and motivational experiences during the learning process: A qualitative approach. Learning & Instruction, 15
Jones, A.C., & Gosling, S.D. 2008. Individual differences in approach and avoidance motivation in animals. In A.J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 165–187). Boca Raton: CRC.
Justice, L. M., Chow, S. M., Capellini, C., Flanigan, K., & Colton, S. (2003). Emergent literacy intervention for vulnerable preschoolers: Relative effects of two approaches. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12
Kagan, J. (2007). A trio of concerns. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2
Karabenick, S. A., Woolley, M. E., Friedel, J. M., Ammon, B. V., Blazevski, J., Bonney, C. R., et al. (2007). Cognitive processing of self-report items in educational research: Do they think what we mean? Educational Psychologist, 42, 139–151.
Keith, L. K., & Bracken, B. A. (1996). Self-concept instrumentation: A historical and evaluative review. In B. A. Bracken (Ed.), Handbook of self-concept (pp. 91–170). New York: Wiley.
Kline, P. (2000). A psychometrics primer. London: Free Association Books.
Klopfer, F. J., & Madden, T. M. (1980). The middlemost choice on attitude items: Ambivalence, neutrality, or uncertainty. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 6
Krosnick, J. A., Judd, C. M., & Wittenbrink, B. (2005). The measurement of attitudes. In D. Albarracin, B. T. Johnson & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 21–76). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1998). Emotion, motivation, and anxiety: Brain mechanisms and psychophysiology. Biological Psychiatry, 44
Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1983). The experience sampling method. New Directions for Methodology of Social & Behavioral Science, 15, 41–56.
Lau, K. (2004). Construction and initial validation of the Chinese Reading Motivation Questionnaire. Educational Psychology, 24
Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the classroom: Age differences and academic correlates. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97
Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1–55.
Litman, J. A. (2005). Curiosity and the pleasures of learning: Wanting and liking new information. Cognition & Emotion, 19
Liu, W., Wong, A. F. L., Divaharan, S., Peer, J., Quek, C., & Williams, M. D. (2006). Students’ intrinsic motivation in project-based learning using an asynchronous discussion platform. Educational Research Journal, 21, 217–234.
Lucas, R. E., & Baird, B. M. (2006). Global self-assessment. In M. Eid & E. Diener (Eds.), Handbook of multimethod measurement in psychology
(pp. 29–42). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRef
Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. E., Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, P. H. (2008). A latent transition analysis of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through adolescence. Educational Research & Evaluation, 14
Marsh, H. W. (1986). Negative item bias in rating scales for preadolescent children: A cognitive-developmental phenomenon. Developmental Psychology, 22
Marsh, H. W. (1990). The structure of academic self-concept: The Marsh/Shavelson model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82
Marsh, H. W. (1992a). Content specificity of relations between academic achievement and academic self-concept. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84
Marsh, H. W. (1992b). Self description questionnaire—II manual. Sydney: University of Western Sydney.
Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., & Debus, R. (1991). Self-concepts of young children 5 to 8 years of age: Measurement and multidimensional structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83
Marsh, H. W., Craven, R. G., Hinkley, J. W., & Debus, R. L. (2003). Evaluation of the Big-Two-Factor Theory of academic motivation orientations: An evaluation of jingle–jangle fallacies. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 38
McAuley, E., Duncan, T. E., & Tammen, V. V. (1989). Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 60, 48–58.
Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57
Michell, J. (1990). An introduction to the logic of psychological measurement. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Michell, J. (1999). Measurement in psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Midgley, C., Maehr, M. L., Hruda, L. Z., Anderman, E., Anderman, L., Freeman, K. E., et al. (2000). Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Mizuno, K., Tanaka, M., Ishii, A., Tanabe, H. C., Onoe, H., Sadato, N., et al. (2008). The neural basis of academic achievement motivation. NeuroImage, 42
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Murphy, P. K., & Alexander, P. A. (2000). A motivated exploration of motivation terminology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25
Nicholls, J. G. (1978). The development of the concepts of effort and ability, perception of academic attainment, and the understanding that difficult tasks require more ability. Child Development, 49
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91
Nurmi, J.-E., & Aunola, K. (2005). Task motivation during the first school years: A person-oriented approach to longitudinal data. Learning & Instruction, 15
Paris, S. G., Yambor, K. M., & Packard, B. W. (1998). Hands-on biology: A museum–school–university partnership for enhancing students’ interest and learning in science. Elementary School Journal, 98
Patrick, H., Ryan, A. M., Anderman, L. H., Middleton, M., Linnenbrink, L., Hruda, L. Z., et al. (1997). Manual for Observing Patterns of Adaptive Learning (OPAL): A protocol for classroom observations. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Peklaj, C., & Bucik, N. (2003). Vprasalnik bralne motivacije za mlajse ucence [Reading motivation questionnaire for young students]. In: S. Pečjak (Ed.), Bralna motivacija kot dejavnik učinkovitega učenja in izobraževanja. Raziskovalno poročilo [Reading motivation as a factor of effective learning and education. Research report]. Ljubljana: Znanstveni inštitut Filozofske fakultete.
Perry, N. E., VandeKamp, K. O., Mercer, L. K., & Nordby, C. J. (2002). Investigating teacher-student interactions that foster self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 37, 5–15.
Piers, E. V. (1984). Piers–Harris children’s self-concept scale: Revised manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Pierson, J. M. (1999). Transforming engagement in literacy instruction: The role of student genuine interest and ability. Annals of Dyslexia, 49
Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92
Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82
Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational & Psychological Measurement, 53
Rao, N., & Sachs, J. (1999). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Chinese version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 59
Ratner, C. (1993). Contributions of sociohistorical psychology and phenomenology to research methodology. In H. J. Stam, L. P. Mos, W. Thorngate & B. Kaplan (Eds.), Recent trends in theoretical psychology (Vol. III, pp. 503–510). New York: Springer.
Reeve, J., & Cole, S. G. (1987). Integration of affect and cognition in intrinsic motivation. Journal of Psychology, 121, 441–449.
Reeve, J., & Nix, G. (1997). Expressing intrinsic motivation through acts of exploration and facial displays of interest. Motivation & Emotion, 21
Rheinberg, F., Vollmeyer, R., & Rollet, W. (2000). Motivation and action in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation
(pp. 503–529). New York: Academic.CrossRef
Ross, S. R., Putnam, S. H., & Adams, K. M. (2006). Psychological disturbance, incomplete effort, and compensation-seeking status as predictors of neuropsychological test performance in head injury. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 28
Schiefele, U., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1995). Motivation and ability as factors in mathematics experience and achievement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 26
Schneider, E. F., Lang, A., Shin, M., & Bradley, S. D. (2004). Death with a story: How story impacts emotional, motivational, and physiological responses to first-person shooter video games. Human Communication Research, 30, 361–375.
Schultheiss, O. C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2005). An implicit motive perspective on competence. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation. New York: Guilford.
Schunk, D. H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26
Shedivy, S. L. (2004). Factors that lead some students to continue the study of foreign language past the usual 2 years in high school. System, 32
Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74
Smith, R. M. (1996). A comparison of methods for determining dimensionality in Rasch measurement. Structural Equation Modeling, 3
Snow, R. E., Corno, L., & Jackson, D. N. (1996). Individual differences in affective and conative functions. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 243–310). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
Spinelli, E. (1989). The interpreted world: An introduction to phenomenological psychology. London: Sage.
Swalander, L., & Taube, K. (2007). Influences of family based prerequisites, reading attitude & self-regulation on reading ability. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32
Taylor, S. F., Welsh, R. C., Wager, T. D., Phan, K. L., Fitzgerald, K. D., & Gehring, W. J. (2004). A functional neuroimaging study of motivation and executive function. NeuroImage, 21
Turner, J. C., Midgley, C., Meyer, D. K., Gheen, M., Anderman, E. M., Kang, Y., et al. (2002). The classroom environment and students’ reports of avoidance strategies in mathematics: A multimethod study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94
Urdan, T., & Mestas, M. (2006). The goals behind performance goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98
Veermans, M., & Tapola, A. (2004). Primary school students’ motivational profiles in longitudinal settings. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 48
Velleman, P. F., & Wilkinson, L. (1993). Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologies are misleading. The American Statistician, 47
Vestewig, R. E., & Paradise, C. A. (1977). Multidimensional scaling of the TAT and the measurement of achievement motivation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41
Washburn, D. A., & Putney, R. T. (2001). Attention and task difficulty: When is performance facilitated? Learning & Motivation, 32
Watkins, M. W., & Coffey, D. Y. (2004). Reading motivation: Multidimensional and indeterminate. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96
Waugh, R. F. (2006). Rasch measurement. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), The encyclopaedia of measurement and statistics. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Waugh, R. F., & Chapman, E. S. (2005). An analysis of dimensionality using factor analysis (True Score Theory) and Rasch measurement: What is the difference? Which method is better? Journal of Applied Measurement, 6, 80–99.
Weiner, B. (1992). Motivation. In M. C. Alkin (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of educational research (6th ed., pp. 860–865). New York: Macmillan.
West, J. (2002). Motivation and access to help: The influence of status on one child’s motivation for literacy learning. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 18
Wicker, F. W., Brown, G., Wiehe, J. A., & Shim, W. (1990). Moods, goals, and measures of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Psychology, 124, 75–86.
Wigfield, A. (1997). Reading motivation: A domain-specific approach to motivation. Educational Psychologist, 32
Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (1995). Dimensions of children’s motivations for reading: An initial study. Reading Research Report, 34, 1–25.
Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (1997). Relations of children’s motivation for reading to the amount and breadth of their reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89
Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Yoon, K. S., Harold, R. D., Arbreton, A. J. A., Freedman-Doan, C., et al. (1997). Change in children's competence beliefs and subjective task values across the elementary school years: A 3-year study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89
Wilson, K. M., & Trainin, G. (2007). First grade students' motivation and achievement for reading, writing, and spelling. Reading Psychology, 28
Worrell, F. C. (1997). An exploratory factor analysis of Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents with academically talented students. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 57
Wright, B. D. (1996). Comparing Rasch measurement and factor analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 3, 3–24.
Yeung, A. B. (2004). The octagon model of volunteer motivation: Results of a phenomenological analysis. Voluntas, 15
Young, P. T. (1950). Motivation. In W. S. Monroe (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of educational research (revised edition) (pp. 755–761). New York: Macmillan.
Zalla, T., Koechlin, E., Pietrini, P., Basso, G., Aquino, P., Sirigu, A., et al. (2000). Differential amygdala responses to winning and losing: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, 12
Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45