Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 91–110

The Implications of Research on Expertise for Curriculum and Pedagogy

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10648-006-9009-0

Cite this article as:
Feldon, D.F. Educ Psychol Rev (2007) 19: 91. doi:10.1007/s10648-006-9009-0


Instruction on problem solving in particular domains typically relies on explanations from experts about their strategies. However, research indicates that such self-reports often are incomplete or inaccurate (e.g., Chao & Salvendy, 1994; Cooke & Breedin, 1994). This article evaluates research on experts’ cognition, the accuracy of experts’ self-reports, and the efficacy of instruction based on experts’ self-reports. Analysis of this evidence indicates that experts’ free recall of strategies introduces errors and omissions into instructional materials that hinder student success. In contrast, when experts engage in structured knowledge elicitation techniques (e.g., cognitive task analysis), the resultant instruction is more effective. Based on these findings, the article provides a theoretical explanation of experts’ self-report errors and discusses implications for the continued improvement of instructional design processes.


ExpertiseSelf-reportKnowledge elicitationInstructionAutomaticity

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Studies, College of EducationUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA