Article

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 175-191

Toxicological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, benzophenone-2, on planulae and in vitro cells of the coral, Stylophora pistillata

  • C. A. DownsAffiliated withHaereticus Environmental Laboratory Email author 
  • , Esti Kramarsky-WinterAffiliated withDepartment of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv UniversityAvram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and National Institute For Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
  • , John E. FauthAffiliated withDepartment of Biology, University of Central Florida
  • , Roee SegalAffiliated withDepartment of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University
  • , Omri BronsteinAffiliated withDepartment of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University
  • , Rina JegerAffiliated withDepartment of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
  • , Yona LichtenfeldAffiliated withAvram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and National Institute For Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
  • , Cheryl M. WoodleyAffiliated withHollings Marine Laboratory, U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric AdministrationCenter for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
  • , Paul PenningtonAffiliated withCenter for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
    • , Ariel KushmaroAffiliated withAvram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences and National Institute For Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the NegevSchool of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanyang Technological University
    • , Yossi LoyaAffiliated withDepartment of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University

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Abstract

Benzophenone-2 (BP-2) is an additive to personal-care products and commercial solutions that protects against the damaging effects of ultraviolet light. BP-2 is an “emerging contaminant of concern” that is often released as a pollutant through municipal and boat/ship wastewater discharges and landfill leachates, as well as through residential septic fields and unmanaged cesspits. Although BP-2 may be a contaminant on coral reefs, its environmental toxicity to reefs is unknown. This poses a potential management issue, since BP-2 is a known endocrine disruptor as well as a weak genotoxicant. We examined the effects of BP-2 on the larval form (planula) of the coral, Stylophora pistillata, as well as its toxicity to in vitro coral cells. BP-2 is a photo-toxicant; adverse effects are exacerbated in the light versus in darkness. Whether in darkness or light, BP-2 induced coral planulae to transform from a motile planktonic state to a deformed, sessile condition. Planulae exhibited an increasing rate of coral bleaching in response to increasing concentrations of BP-2. BP-2 is a genotoxicant to corals, exhibiting a strong positive relationship between DNA-AP lesions and increasing BP-2 concentrations. BP-2 exposure in the light induced extensive necrosis in both the epidermis and gastrodermis. In contrast, BP-2 exposure in darkness induced autophagy and autophagic cell death. The LC50 of BP-2 in the light for an 8 and 24 h exposure was 120 and 165 parts per billion (ppb), respectively. The LC50s for BP-2 in darkness for the same time points were 144 and 548 ppb. Deformity EC20 levels (24 h) were 246 parts per trillion in the light and 9.6 ppb in darkness.

Keywords

Coral Benzophenone-2 Cell toxicity Coral planula Sunscreen UV filters